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CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 5, September 2018
 

Abstract
The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water using KOH-activated pine tree needle leaves biochar is considered a cost effective and efficient process. In this study, pine tree needle leaves were mixed with 0, 50, 100 and 200% (KOH weight/feedstock weight) of KOH, respectively. Then, the mixture was pyrolyzed at 500 degree celcius for 6 hrs. The adsorption characteristics of 10 VOCs to the biochar were tested. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of the KOH activated biochar was highest in 100% KOH-biochar. The VOC removal efficiencies of 50% and 200% KOH activated biochar were similar and the 0% KOH activated biochar showed the lowest VOC removal. The FTIR results showed that increasing the amount of KOH seemed to enhance the formation of various functional groups, such as -OH, -C=C, -O. The adsorption strength of 10 VOCs to the KOH activated biochar seemed to be increasing by the increase of the solubility of VOCs. This may suggest that the adsorption is taking place in hydrophilic sites of the biochar surface. The KOH activated pine tree needle leaves biochar can be an effective sorbent for VOCs removal in water and 100% KOH mixing seemed to provide better sorption capacity.

Key Words
pine tree needle leaves; adsorption; VOCs; activated-KOH biochar; sorbent

Address
Nshirirungu Theoneste, Moon Hyun Kim: Institute of Department of Environmental Engineering, Daegu University, 201 Daegudae-ro, Gyeongsan-si,Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea

Kurt Louis Solis, Minoh Park and Yongseok Hong:Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong City, 30019, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In this research work, synthesis of sugarcane bagasse/zinc aluminium biocomposite and apple peel/zinc aluminium biocomposite and their application for removal of Reactive Red-241 and Acid Orange-7, respectively, was studied using various parameters. At pH 2 the sorption was the highest for both dyes. The trend showed that the dye sorption declined by decreasing the biocomposite dose and enhanced by increasing the dye concentration and temperature. Equilibrium was achieved at 60 minutes for Reactive Red-241 onto sugarcane bagasse/zinc aluminium biocomposite and 90 minutes for Acid Orange-7 onto apple peel/zinc aluminium biocomposite.The research data was good fitted to pseudo-2nd-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the biosorption of the selected dyes at the surface of biosorbent through various binding sites. Surface morphology modification of both biocomposites before and after biosorption was inspected through SEM. Crystallinity of biocomposite was examined through XRD analysis. It was implied that sugarcane bagasse/ zinc aluminium biocomposite and apple peel/ zinc aluminium biocomposite are good adsorbents for dyes elimination from aqueous solutions.

Key Words
biosorption; sugarcane bagasse/zinc aluminium biocomposite; apple peel/zinc aluminium biocomposite; acid dyes; reactive dyes; modeling

Address
Yusra Safa, Saadia Rashid Tariq: Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
Haq Nawaz Bhatti: Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Misbah Sultan: Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Ismat Bibi: Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Shazia Nouren: Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Sialkot

Abstract
The applicability of the ultrafiltration process for color removal from dye-containing water has been examined in this study. The optimization of major process variables, such as dye concentration, chitosan concentration and transmembrane pressure on permeate flux and color removal efficiency was investigated. To find the most appropriate results for the experiment, the Box-Wilson experimental design method was employed. The results were correlated by a response function and the coefficients were determined by regression analysis. Permeate flux variation and color removal efficiency determined from the response functions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The optimum conditions of chitosan concentration, dye concentration and pressure were 50 mg/l, 50 mg/l and 3 bars, respectively for the highest permeate flux. On the other hand, optimum conditions for color removal efficiency were determined as 50 mg/l of dye concentration, 50 mg/l of chitosan concentration and 1 bar of pressure.

Key Words
Box-Wilson experimental design; chitosan; decolorization; dye; ultrafiltration

Address
Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Environmental Engineering, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir, Turkey

Abstract
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was modified by silica sol in the coagulation bath during non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process. The effects of silica sol concentrations on the morphology, surface property, mechanical strength and separation property of PVC UF membranes were systematically investigated. PVC membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle goniometry and tensile strength measurement. The results showed that silica had been successfully assembled on the surface of PVC UF membrane. With the increase of silica sol concentration in the coagulation bath, the morphologies of PVC UF membranes changed from cavity structure to finger-like pore structure and asymmetric cross-section structure. The hydrophilicity and permeability of PVC UF membranes were further evaluated. When silica sol concentration was 20 wt.%, the modified PVC membrane exhibited the highest hydrophilicity with a static contact angle of 36.5 degree and permeability of 91.8 (L.m-2.h-1). The structure of self-assemble silica had significant impact on the surface property, morphology, mechanical strength and resultant separation performance of the PVC membranes.

Key Words
polyvinyl chloride; surface modification; silica sol; ultrafiltration membrane

Address
State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Membrane Science and Engineering R&D Lab, Chemical Engineering Research Center,
East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST), 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China


Abstract
The nano/micro composites with highly porous surface area have attracted of great interest, particularly the synthesis of porous and thin film sheets of high performance. In this paper, an easy method of cost-effective synthesis of thin film ceramic fiber membranes based on Hydroxyapatite, and activated carbon by turned into studied to be applied within the service-facilitated the transport of radioactive waste such as 90Sr, 137Cs and 60Co) as activated product of radioisotopes from ETRR-2 research reactor and dissolved in 3M HNO3, across a thin flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (TFSSLM). Radionuclides are transported from alkaline pH values. The presence of sodium salts in the aqueous media improves in HNO3, the lowering of permeability because the initial HNO3 concentration is improved. The study some parameters on the thin sheet ceramic supported liquid membrane. EDTA as stripping phase concentration, time of extraction and temperature were studied. The study of maximum permeability of radioisotopes for all parameters. The pertraction of a radioactive waste solution from nitrate medium were examined at the optimized conditions. Under the optimum experimental 98.6-99.9% of 90Sr, 79.65-80.3% of 137Cs and 60Co 45.5-55.5% in 90-110 min with were extracted in 10-30 min, respectively. The process of diffusion in liquid membranes is governed by the chemical diffusion process.

Key Words
radionuclides; nHydroxyapatite; nActivated Carbon; thin film supported liquid membrane

Address
Nuclear Fuel Chemistry Hot Labs. And Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.C. 13759, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract
Micelle-Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) is a membrane separation processes that improving ultrafiltration process with the formation of micelles of the surface active agents. Surface active agents are widely used to improve membrane processes due to the ability to trap organic compounds and metals in the treatment of industrial waste water. In this study, surface active agents are used to improve micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solid (TDS), turbidity and clogging the membrane in dairy wastewater treatment. Three important operational factors (anionic surface active agent concentration, pressure and pH) and these interactions were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design. Results show that due to the concentration polarization layer and increase the number of Micelles; the anionic surface active agent concentration has a negative effect on the flux and has a positive effect on the elimination of contamination indices. pH, and the pressure have the greatest effect on flux. On the other hand, it could be stated that these percentages of separation are in the percentages range of Nano-filtration (NF). While MEUF process has higher flux than NF process. The results have been achieved at lower pressure while NF process needs high pressure, thus making MEUF is the replacement for the NF process.

Key Words
MEUF, surface active agents, Box-Behnken, dairy waste water

Address
Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran

Abstract
As membrane fouling is based on various factors, it is a complex phenomenon that is hard to estimate. This study investigated membrane fouling in a thermophilic jet loop membrane bioreactor (JLMBR). With this purpose, four different empirical membrane fouling models with different sludge retention times were applied on the flow data obtained in the system. As a result of the model implementation, it was found for all sludge retention times that, standard blocking is effective in the first 1.5 hours of filtration, while cake filtration was dominant in the remaining duration. Additionally, it was observed that as the sludge retention time increases, membrane fouling rate decreases.

Key Words
EPS; fouling model; filtration; MBR; SMP; thermophilic

Address
Elif İnce, Mahir İnce: Gebze Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Kocaeli, Turkey
Alikemal Topaloğlu: Bulent Ecevit University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Zonguldak, Turkey

Abstract
Fouling characteristics of humic substances on tight ultrafiltration (UF) membrane have been investigated. The tight UF membrane was prepared by blending polysulfone (PSf) in N.N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with 25%wt of Polyethylene glycol (PEG400) and 4%wt of acetone. Fouling characteristic of the modified PSf membrane was observed during peat water filtration in different trans-membrane pressure (TMP). It was found that the acetone modified membrane provided 13% increase in TMP during five hours of peat water filtration, where a stable flux was reached within 150 minutes. Meanwhile, the increase of TMP from 10 psig to 30 psig resulted in a fouling resistance enhancement of 60%. Furthermore, based on the fouling analysis, fouling mechanism at the first phase of filtration was attributed to intermediate blocking while the second phase was cake formation.

Key Words
fouling mechanism; humic substances; polysulfone membrane; peat water filtration; tight ultrafiltration

Address
Danu Ariono, Anita K. Wardani and I.G. Wenten: Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132
Putu T.P. Aryanti: Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Jl. Terusan Jendral Sudirman, Cimahi, Indonesia 40285

Abstract
In this work, it was investigated the usability of artificial bee colony (ABC) and genetic algorithm (GA) in modeling adsorption of Co(II) onto drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS). DWTS, obtained as inevitable byproduct at the end of drinking water treatment stages, was used as an adsorbent without any physical or chemical pre-treatment in the adsorption experiments. Firstly, DWTS was characterized employing various analytical procedures such as elemental, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, XRD, XRF and TGA/DTA analysis. Then, adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system and DWTS\'s Co(II) removal potential was modelled via ABC and GA methods considering the effects of certain experimental parameters (initial pH, contact time, initial Co(II) concentration, DWTS dosage) called as the input parameters. The accuracy of ABC and GA method was determined and these methods were applied to four different functions: quadratic, exponential, linear and power. Some statistical indices (sum square error, root mean square error, mean absolute error, average relative error, and determination coefficient) were used to evaluate the performance of these models. The ABC and GA method with quadratic forms obtained better prediction. As a result, it was shown ABC and GA can be used optimization of the regression function coefficients in modeling adsorption experiments.

Key Words
adsorption; artificial bee colony algorithm; modeling; genetic algorithm

Address
Nurcan Öztürk: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61830 Trabzon, Turkey
Hasan Basri Şentürk and Celal Duran: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
Ali Gündoğdu: Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Science, Gümüşhane University, 29100 Gümüşhane, Turkey

Abstract
Fouling by solids and microorganisms is the major obstacle limiting the efficient use of membrane wastewater treatment. In our previous study, two stages microalgae/membrane filtration system was proposed to treat anaerobic digested palm oil mill effluent (AnPOME). This two stages microalgae/membrane filtration system had showed great potential for the treatment of AnPOME with high removal of COD, NH3-N, PO43-, TSS, turbidity, and colour. However, fouling behavior of the membrane in this two stages microalgae/membrane filtration system was still unknown. In this study, empirical models that describe permeate flux decline for dead-end filtration (pore blocking - complete, intermediate, and standard; and cake layer formation) presented by Hermia were used to fit the experimental results in identifying the fouling mechanism under different experimental conditions. Both centrifuged and non-centrifuged samples were taken from the medium with 3 days RT intervals, from day 0 to day 12 to study their influence on fouling mechanisms described by Hermia for ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO) filtration mode. Besides, a more detailed study on the use of resistance-in-series model for dead-end filtration was done to investigate the fouling mechanisms involved in membrane filtration of AnPOME collected after microalgae treatment. The results showed that fouling of UF and NF membrane was mainly caused by cake layer formation and it was also supported by the analysis for resistance-in-series model. Whereas, fouling of RO membrane was dominated by concentration polarization.

Key Words
membrane process; fouling; Hermia

Address
Yeit Haan Teow, Mohd Sobri Takriff and Abdul Wahab Mohammad: Research Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Zhong Huo Wong: Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia



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