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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 2, June 2016
 

Abstract
The aim of this research is to apply the eQuest model to investigate the energy conservation in a multifamily building located in Dayton, Ohio by using a Trombe wall and an ammonia ground source heat pump (R-717 GSHP). Integration of the Trombe wall into the building is the first retrofitting measure in this study. Trombe wall as a passive solar system, has a simple structure which may reduce the heating demand of buildings significantly. Utilization of ground source heat pump is an effective approach where conventional air source heat pump doesn\'t have an efficient performance, especially in cold climates. Furthermore, the type of refrigerant in the heat pumps has a substantial effect on energy efficiency. Natural refrigerant, ammonia (R-717), which has a high performance and no negative impacts on the environment, could be the best choice for using in heat pumps. After implementing the eQUEST model in the said multifamily building, the total annual energy consumption with a conventional R-717 air-source-heat-pump (ASHP) system was estimated as the baseline model. The baseline model results were compared to those of the following scenarios: using R-717 GSHP, R410a GSHP and integration of the Trombe wall into the building. The Results specified that, compared to the baseline model, applying the R-717 GSHP and Trombe wall, led to 20% and 9% of energy conservation in the building, respectively. In addition, it was noticed that by using R-410a instead of R-717 in the GSHP, the energy demand increased by 14%.

Key Words
retrofitting measures; Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP); R-717; R-410a; Trombe wall; eQUEST

Address
Abtin Ataei and Mohammad Javad Dehghani: Department of Energy Engineering, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This study is concerned with the analysis of two renewable technologies for electric energy production: wind energy and photovoltaic energy. The two technologies were assessed and compared by economic point of view, by using selected indicators characterized by a clear calculation approach, requirement of information easy to be collected, clear, but even complete, interpretation of results. The used economic indicators are Levelized Cost of Energy, CO2 abatement cost and fossil fuel saving specific cost; these last two specifically aimed at evaluating the different capabilities that renewable technologies have to cut down direct CO2 emissions and to avoid fossil fuel extraction. The two technologies were compared also from the environmental point of view by applying Life Cycle Assessment approach and using the environmental impact categories from the Eco-indicator‟95 method. The economic analysis was developed by taking into account different energy system sizes and different geographic areas in order to compare different European conditions (Italy, Germany and Denmark) in term of renewable resource availability and market trend. The environmental analysis was developed comparing two particular types of PV and wind plants, respectively residential and micro-wind turbine, located in Italy. According to the three calculated economic indicators, the wind energy emerged as more favorable than PV energy. From the environmental point of view, both the technologies are able to provide savings for almost all the considered environmental impact categories. The proposed approach, based on the use of economic and environmental indicators may be useful in supporting the policies and the decision making procedures concerned with the promotion and use of renewables, in reference to the specific geographic, economic and temporal conditions.

Key Words
renewables; wind energy; photovoltaic; economics; Life Cycle Assessment

Address
Ennio A. Carnevale: Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence, Italy
Lidia Lombardi: Niccolo Cusano University, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi 3, 00166 Rome, Italy
Laura Zanchi: Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence, Italy

Abstract
To start with, finding a sustainable method to produce sweet water and electricity by using renewable energies is one of the most important issues at this time. So, experimental and theoretical analysis of the performance of a closed solar powered still, which is jointed to photovoltaic cells and vacuum pump and equipped by nano plate, as the principle stage of zero discharge desalination process is investigated in this project. Major goal of this work is to reuse the concentrated brine of the Mobin petrochemical complex in order to produce potable, sweet water from effluent saline wastewater and generating electricity in the same time by using solar energy instead of discharging them to the environment. It is observed the increase in brackish water temperature increases the average daily production of solar desalination still considerably. Therefore, the nano plate and vacuum pump are added to augment the evaporation rate. The insolation rate, evaporation rate, the average brackish temperature, ambient temperature, density are investigated during a year 2013. In addition to obtain the capacity of solar powered still, the highest and lowest amount of water and electricity generation are reported during a twelvemonth (2013). Results indicate the average daily production is increased 16%, which represents 7.78 kW.h energy saving comparing with traditional solar still.

Key Words
solar powered desalination still; wastewater; nano plate; zero discharge desalination

Address
Milad Jadidoleslami: Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran
Farshad Farahbod: Department of Chemical Engineering, Firoozabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, Fars, Iran

Abstract
Rapid depletion of fossil based oil, coal and gas reserves and its greater demand day by day necessitates the search for other alternatives. Severe environmental impacts caused by the fossil fire based power plants and the escalating fuel costs are the major challenges faced by the electricity supply industry. Integration of Distributed Generators (DG) especially, wind and solar systems to the grid has been steadily increasing due to the concern of clean environment. This paper focuses on a new simple and fast load flow algorithm named Backward Forward Sweep Algorithm (BFSA) for finding the voltage profile and power losses with the integration of various sizes of DG at different locations. Genetic Algorithm (GA) based BFSA is adopted in finding the optimal location and sizing of DG to attain an improved voltage profile and considerable reduced power loss. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient in finding the optimal location and sizing of DG in 15-bus radial distribution system (RDS).The authenticity of the placement of optimized DG is assured with other DG placement techniques.

Key Words
distributed generator; BFSA; GA; optimal location; voltage profile; RDS

Address
E.K. Bindumol and C.A. Babu: Electrical Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022, India

Abstract
Ammonia borane NH3BH3 solubilized in organic solvent is a potential liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage material. In this study, metal acetylacetonates like Fe(O2C5H7)3, Co(O2C5H7)2, Ni(O2C5H7)2, Pd(O2C5H7)2, Pt(O2C5H7)2 and Ru(O2C5H7)3 are considered for assisting dehydrocoupling of ammonia borane in diglyme (0.135 M) at 50oC. The molar ratio between ammonia borane and metal acetylacetonate is fixed at 100. A protocol for the separation of the soluble and insoluble fractions present in the slurry is proposed; it consists in using acetonitrile to make the precipitation of metal-based compounds easier and to solubilize boron-based intermediates/products. The nature of the metal does not affect the dehydrocoupling mechanisms, the 11B{1H} NMR spectra showing the formation of the same reaction intermediates. The aforementioned metal acetylacetonates do mainly have effect on the kinetics of dehydrocoupling. Dehydrocoupling takes place heterogeneously and dehydrogenation of ammonia borane in these conditions leads to the formation of polyborazylene via intermediates like e.g., B-(cyclodiborazanyl) amine-borane and borazine. Our main results are reported and discussed herein.

Key Words
ammonia borane; dehydrocoupling; diglyme; metal acetylacetonate; thermolysis

Address
Manon Perez, Philippe Miele and Umit B. Demirci: IEM (Institut Europeen des Membranes), UMR5635 (CNRS, ENSCM, UM), Universite de Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC047, F-34095, Montpellier, France


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