This paper describes nuclear energy technologies for the solution of long term energy problem with better reliability. A short overview about nuclear energy applications are explained with a basic analysis of energy. Furthermore, industrial application, space application of nuclear systems and ship propulsion in nuclear energy application are demonstrated in more detail. This report also includes some examples of the experienced nuclear power plant to identify energy production. The general purpose of the article is to understand how efficiently nuclear systems generates energy, and solve the world`s increasing energy demand in our century.
nuclear energy technologies; energy planning; industrial application; space application; ship propulsion in nuclear energy
Erdogan Guk: School of Engineering Sciences, Sustainable Energy Technologies, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
Naci Kalkan: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Bitlis Eren University, Bitlis 13000, Turkey
Microgrid, which can be considered as an integration of various dispersed resources (DRs), is characterized by number of DRs interfaced through the power electronics converters. The microgrid comprising these DRs is often operated in an islanded mode. To minimize the cost, reduce complexity and increase reliability, it is preferred to avoid any communication channel between them. Consequently, the droop control method is traditionally adopted to distribute active and reactive power among the DRs operating in parallel. However, the accuracy of distribution of active and reactive power among the DRs controlled by the conventional droop control approach is highly dependent on the value of line impedance, R/X i.e., resistance to reactance ratio of the line, voltage setting of inverters etc. The limitations of the conventional droop control approach are demonstrated and a modified droop control approach to reduce the effect of impedance mis-match and improve the time response is proposed. The error in reactive power sharing is minimized by inserting virtual impedance in line with the inverters to remove the mis-match in impedance. The improved time response is achieved by modifying the real-power frequency droop using arctan function. Simulations results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the control approach.
droop control; virtual impedance loop; arctan function; reactive power sharing
Urvi N. Patel: Department of Electrical Engineering, C.K. Pithawalla College of Engineering & Technology, Near Malvan Temple, Dumas Road, Surat, Gujarat, India
Dipakkumar Gondalia and Hiren H. Patel: Department of Electrical Engineering, Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, near Athwagate, Surat, Gujarat, India
Energy holds key to economic growth and prosperity of India. Currently, India has very high-energy import dependence, especially in the case of crude oil (80%) and natural gas (40%). Even coal import has been increasing over the years. Considering India\'s population growth, emphasis on manufacturing, production, and service industry, energy consumption is bound to increase. More fossil energy consumption means greater dependence on energy import leading to widening trade deficit and current account deficit. Therefore, exploitation of indigenous renewable energy production is necessary. The paper reviews the progress and growth of renewable energy production, distribution, and consumption in India. The paper highlights some of the enablers of renewable energy in India. The authors discuss the opportunities and challenges of increasing share of renewable energy to reduce energy import and address issues of energy security in India. The findings suggest that India is ready for a quantum leap in renewable production by 2022.
renewable energy; tariff; investment; policy
Sanjay Kumar Kar: Department of Management Studies, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, 2nd Floor, Tower C, OIDB Bhawan, NOIDA, 201301, U.P, India
K. Gopakumar: D C School of Management and Technology, Vagamon, Kerala, India
In this paper, we have reported an enhancement in thermoelectric properties of un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon (001) substrate by annealing treatment. The grown ZnO thin films were annealed in oxygen environment at 500oC-800oC, keeping a step of 100oC for one hour. Room temperature Seekbeck measurements showed that Seebeck coefficient and power factor increased from 222 to 510 uV/K and 8.8x10-6 to 2.6x10-4 Wm-1K-2 as annealing temperature increased from 500 to 800oC respectively. This observation was related with the improvement of crystal structure of grown films with annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that full width half maximum (FWHM) of ZnO (002) plane decreased and crystalline size increased as the annealing temperature increased. Photoluminescence study revealed that the intensity of band edge emission increased and defect emission decreased as annealing temperature increased because the density of oxygen vacancy related donor defects decreased with annealing temperature. This argument was further justified by the Hall measurements which showed a decreasing trend of carrier concentration with annealing temperature.
ZnO; MBE; thermoelectric properties; annealing temperature; crystal structure
Khalid Mahmood, Adnan Ali, M. Ajaz-Un-Nabi, M. Imran Arshad and Nasir Amin: Department of Physics, GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Asghar: Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
M.A. Hasan: Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, UNCC, USA
Prompt neutron lifetime calculations have been performed for the NIRR-1 reactor HEU and LEU cores using the 1/v insertion and the Adjoint flux weighing methods. Results of calculations obtained for the HEU and LEU cores are respectively 57.3+-0.8 and 47.5+-0.7 for the 1/v insertion and 56.9+-0.3 and 46.3+-0.5 for the Adjoint flux. There is a good agreement seen between the two methods for both cores. The prompt neutron lifetime was observed to be shorter in the LEU than for the HEU as expected. However, the Adjoint flux weighing method seemed to be the easiest method in calculating the prompt neutron lifetime for NIRR-1.
Yakubu V. Ibrahim: Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Micheal O. Adeleye: Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Raymond L. Njinga: Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria
Henry C. Odoi: School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Sunday A. Jonah: Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria