Despite recent progresses in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems, there are still many unsolved limitations. Most of all, a major obstacle in current nanoparticle-based drug carrier is the lack of sufficient drug delivery into target cells due to various biological barriers, such as: extracellular matrix, endolysosomal barrier, and drug-resistance associated proteins. To circumvent these limitations, several research groups have utilized photochemical internalization (PCI), an extension of photodynamic therapy (PDT), in design of innovative and efficient nano-carriers drug delivery. This review presents an overview of a recent research on utilization of PCI in various fields including: anti-cancer therapy, protein delivery, and tissue engineering.
photochemical internalization (PCI); photosensitizer; drug delivery system (DDS); nanoparticles; biological barriers
Wooram Park, Sin-jung Park, Kun Na: Center for Photomedicine, Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi do, 420-743, Korea
Jun Lee: Gyeonggi-Academy of Foreign Languages, 30, 105 105 Gosan-ro, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-010, Korea
Poly(ethylene glycol) end-capped with pentafluorophenyl group(s) in ABA (FP-PEG-FP) and AB (mPEG-FP) types were prepared. Even though they were similar in composition, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of FP-PEG-FP was observed at 23
end-capped PEG; fluorinated compound; LCST; temperature sensitive polymer
Jin Young Kim, Hyo Jung Moon, Du Young Ko and Byeongmoon Jeong: Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-750, Korea
Facile immobilization of growth factors in hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels using dual enzymes is reported in the paper. The hydrogels were formed by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and transforming growth factor-
biocompatible polymer; biomaterials; biomedical engineering; cartilage; hydrogels
Ki Seong Ko, Jung Seok Lee, Yunki Lee, Dong Hwan Oh, Joo Young Son, Min Yong Eom and Ki Dong Park: Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea
Oh Hee Kwon, Ki Dong Park: Deparment of Biomedical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea
Kyung Min Park: Division of Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772, Republic of Korea
To engineer tissue-like structures, cells are required to organize themselves into threedimensional networks that mimic the native tissue micro-architecture. Here, we present agarose-based multiwell platform incorporated with electrical stimulation to build skeletal muscle-like tissues in a facile and highly reproducible fashion. Electrical stimulation of C2C12 cells encapsulated in collagen/matrigel hydrogels facilitated the formation 3D muscle tissues. Consequently, we confirmed the transcriptional upregulations of myogenic related genes in the electrical stimulation group compared to non-stimulated control group in our multi-well 3D culture platform. Given the robust fabrication, engineered muscle tissues in multi-well platform may find their use in high-throughput biological studies drug screenings.
Joohyun Song, Eunjee A. Lee, Seungwoo Cha, Insun Kim, Yonghoon Choi and Nathaniel S. Hwang: School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
Nathaniel S. Hwang: Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
A bioactive and multifunctional elastin-like polymer (ELP) was produced by genetic engineering techniques to develop new artificial matrices with the ability to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). The basic composition of this ELP is a thermo- and pH-sensitive elastin pentapeptide which has been enriched
with RGD-containing domains, the RGD loop of fibronectin, for recognition by integrin receptors on their sequence to promote efficient cell attachment. Hydrogels of this RGD-containing polymer were obtained by crosslinking with hexamethylene diisocyanate, a lysine-targeted crosslinker. These materials retain the \"smart\" nature and temperature-responsive character, and the desired mechanical behavior of the elastin-like polymer family. The influence of the degree of crosslinking on the morphology and properties of the matrices were tested by calorimetric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their mechanical behavior was studied by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA). These results show the potential of these materials in biomedical applications, especially in the development of smart systems for tissue engineering.
Elastin-like polymer; RGD; smart biomaterials; hydrogels; tissue engineering
Vitor E. Santo, Susana Prieto, Ana M. Testera, Francisco J. Arias,Matilde Alonso, Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello: G.I.R. Bioforge, Centro I+D, Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, Paseo de Belen s/n,
Vitor E. Santo, Susana Prieto, Ana M. Testera, Francisco J. Arias,Matilde Alonso, Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello: CIBER-BBN, Centro Investigacion Biomedica en Red-Bioengenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina,
Calle Monforte de Lemos 3-5, Pabellon 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Vitor E. Santo, Joao F. Mano: 3B\'s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Dept. of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, AvePark, Zona Industrial da Gandra, S. Claudio do Barco, 4806-909 Caldas das Taipas, Guimaraes, Portugal
Vitor E. Santo, Joao F. Mano: ICVS/3B\'s-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimaraes, Portugal