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CONTENTS
Volume 7, Number 1, March 2018
 

Abstract
Textile factories are one of the industries which its wastewater treatment is a challenging issue, especially in developing countries and a conventional treatment cannot treat all its pollutants properly. Using chemical coagulants is a technique for physical and chemical primary treatment of the wastewater. We applied jar test for selection of suitable coagulant among the five coagulants including alum, calcium hydroxide, ferrous sulfate, ferrous chloride and barium chloride for the effluent of wastewater in Mazandran textile factory located in Mazandran Province, Iran. In addition, jar test, we also used analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method considering criteria which included coagulation cost, sensitivity to pH change, the amount of sludge generation and side effects for coagulation. The results of the jar test indicated that calcium hydroxide was proper among the coagulants which it removed 92.9% total suspended solid (TSS), 70%dye and30% chemical oxygen demand. The AHP analysis presented that calcium hydroxide is more suitable than other coagulants considering five criteria.

Key Words
Mazandran textile factory; jar test; analytic hierarchy process (AHP)

Address
Gholamreza Asadollahfardi, Hossein Zangooeiand Mostafa Davoodi:Department of Civil Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Vahid Motamedi:Department of Educational Technology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
It is currently agreed upon that one of the major challenges in the construction industry is the energy efficiency of existing buildings. The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and United Nations (UN) have reported that the concentration of global atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased by an average of 50%, a record speed, from 2015 to 2016. The housing sector contributes to 45% of the UK\'s carbon emissions. To help tackle some of those issues the recast Energy Performance Building Directive (EBPD) has introduced Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in the coming years (including buildings that will undergo refurbishment/ renovations). This paper will explore the retrofitting of a UK residential dwelling using Thermal Analysis Simulation (TAS, EDSL) software by focusing on building fabric improvements and usage of on-site renewables. The CIBSE Test Reference Year (TRY) weather data has been selected to examine the performance of the building under current and future climate projections. The proposed design variables were finally implemented in the building altogether on TAS. The simulation results showed a reduction in the building\'s annual energy consumption of 122.64kWh/m2 (90.24%). The greatest savings after this were achieved for the annual reduction in carbon emissions and avoided emissions, which were 84.59% and 816.47 kg/CO2, respectively.

Key Words
building performance; sustainability; near-zero; thermal analysis simulation; energy consumption

Address
Radwa Salem and Ali Bahadori-Jahromi: Department of Civil and Built Environment, School of Computing and Engineering, University of West London, W5 5RF, London, U.K.

Anastasia Mylona: Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, SW12 9BS, London, U.K.

Paulina Godfrey and Darren Cook: Hilton, Maple Court, Reeds Crescent, WD24 4QQ, Watford, U.K.

Abstract
A simple mathematical model for predicting fixed bed adsorption dynamics is described. The model is characterized by a linear adsorption isotherm and a linear driving force expression for mass transfer. Its analytic solution can be approximated with an algebraic equation in closed form which is easily evaluated by spreadsheet computation. To demonstrate one application of the fixed bed model, a previously published adsorption system is used as a case study in this work. The adsorption system examined here describes chromium breakthrough in a fixed bed adsorber packed with imidazole functionalized adsorbent particles and is characterized by a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. However, the equilibrium behavior of the fixed bed adsorber is in essence governed by a linear adsorption isotherm due to the use of a low influent chromium concentration. It is shown that chromium breakthrough is predicted reasonably well by the fixed bed model. The model\'s parameters can be easily extracted from independent batch experiments. The proposed modeling approach is very simple and rapid, and only Excel is used for computation.

Key Words
fixed bed; breakthrough curve; modeling; linear isotherm; linear driving force

Address
Khim Hoong Chu: Honeychem, Nanjing Chemical Industry Park, Nanjing 210047, China

Abstract
Direct membrane filtration (DMF) of wastewater has many advantages over conventional biological wastewater treatment processes. DMF is not only compact, but potentially energy efficient due to the lack of biological aeration. It also produces more biosolids that can be used to produce methane gas through anaerobic digestion. Most of ammoniacal nitrogen in wastewater is preserved in effluent and is used as fertilizer when effluent is recycled for irrigation. In this study, a technical feasibility of DMF was explored. Organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies were compared between DMF and membrane bioreactor (MBR). Despite the extremely high F/V ratio, e.g., 14.4 kg COD/m3/d, DMF provided very high COD removal efficiencies at ~93%. Soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were less in DMF sludge, but membrane fouling rate was far greater than in MBR. The diversity of microbial community in DMF appeared very narrow based on the morphological observation using optical microscope. On the contrary, highly diverse microbial community was observed in the MBR. Microorganisms tended to form jelly globs and attach on reactor wall in DMF. FT-IR study revealed that the biological globs were structurally supported by feather-like materials made of secondary amines. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study showed microorganisms mainly resided on the external surface of microbial globs rather than the internal spaces.

Key Words
wastewater treatment; biodegradation; nitrogen; nitrate

Address
Seong-Hoon Yoon: Nalco Water, An Ecolab Company, 1601 W. Diehl Rd., Naperville, IL 60563, U.S.A.

Abstract
Waste glass disposal causes environmental problems in the cities. To find a suitable green environmental solution for this problem low cost adsorbent in this study was prepared from waste glass. An effective new green adsorbent was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of waste glass (WG), followed by acidic activation of its surface by HCl (WGP). The prepared adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and BET surface measurement. The developed adsorbent was used for the removal of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) from well water. Batch experiments were conducted to test the ability of the prepared adsorbent for the removal of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn from well water. The experiments of the heavy metals adsorption by adsorbent (WGP) were performed at different metal ion concentrations, solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and kinetic models were used to verify the adsorption performance. The results indicated high removal efficiencies (99-100%) for all the studied heavy metals at pH 7 at constant contact time of 2 h. The data obtained from adsorption isotherms of metal ions at different time fitted well to linear form of the Langmuir sorption equation, and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Application of the resulted conditions on well water demonstrated that the modified waste glass adsorbent successfully adsorbed heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) from well water.

Key Words
glass waste; adsorption; heavy metals; wastewater; pollution

Address
M. Nageeb Rashed and A.A. Gad: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Aswan University, Egypt

A.M. AbdEldaiem: Drinking Water and Wastewater Company, Quina, Egypt



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