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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 3, September 2015
 

Abstract
The ventilation system is a key device to ensure both healthful indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort in buildings. The ventilation system should make the IAQ meet the standards such as ASHRAE 62. This study deals with a new approach to modeling the ventilation and IAQ requirement in residential buildings. In that approach, Elite software is used to calculate the air supply volume, and CONTAM model as a multi-zone and contaminant dispersal model is employed to estimate the contaminants' concentrations. Amongst various contaminants existing in the residential buildings, two main contaminates of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were considered. CO and CO2 are generated mainly from combustion sources such as gas cooking and heating oven. In addition to the mentioned sources, CO2 is generated from occupants' respirations. To show how that approach works, a sample house with the area of 80 m2 located in Tehran was considered as an illustrative case study. The results showed that CO2 concentration in the winter was higher than the acceptable level. Therefore, the air change rate (ACH) of 4.2 was required to lower the CO2 concentration below the air quality threshold in the living room, and in the bedrooms, the rate of ventilation volume should be 11.2 ACH.

Key Words
indoor air quality; ventilation; contaminants; modeling; ASHRAE 62

Address
(1) Abtin Ataei, Ali Nowrouzi:
Department of Energy Engineering, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Abtin Ataei, Jun-Ki Choi:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, USA.

Abstract
In this study, a complete set of recirculating cooling water system and the required instruments were built in a semi-industrial-scale and a 50 g/h ozone generation plant and a chlorine system were designed for cooling water treatment. Both chlorination and ozonation treatment methods were studied and the results were analyzed during two 45-days periods. The concentrations of ozone and chlorine in recirculating water were constant at 0.1 mg/lit and 0.6 mg/lit, respectively. In ozone treatment, by increasing the concentration cycle to 33%, the total water consumption decreased by 26% while 11.5% higher energy efficiency achieved thanks to a better elimination of bio-films. In case of Carbon Steel, the corrosion rate reached to 0.012 mm/yr and 0.025 mm/yr for the ozonation and chlorination processes, respectively. Furthermore, consumptions of the anti-corrosion and anti-sedimentation materials in the ozone cooling water treatment were reduced about 60% without using any oxidant and non-oxidant biocides. No significant changes in sediment load were seen in ozonation compared to chlorination. The Chemical Oxygen Demand of the blow-down in ozonation method decreased to one-sixth of that in the chlorination method. Moreover, the soluble iron and water turbidity in the ozonation method were reduced by 97.5% and 70%, respectively. Although no anaerobic bacteria were seen in the cooling water at the proper concentration range of ozone and chlorine, the aerobic bacteria in chlorine and ozone treatment methods were 900 and 200 CFU/ml, respectively. The results showed that the payback time for the ozone treatment is about 2.6 years.

Key Words
ozone treatment; cooling tower; corrosion; energy conservation; chemical conservation

Address
(1) Abtin Ataei, Morteza Ghazi Mirsaeed, Reza Lashkarboluki:
Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Abtin Ataei, Jun-Ki Choi:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, USA;
(3) Reza Lashkarboluki:
Department of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
This article outlines a case study of water and energy savings in a typical building through a modelling process and analysis of simultaneous water-energy saving measures. Wet cooling towers are one of the most important equipments in buildings with a considerable amount of water and energy consumption. A variety of methods are provided to reduce water and energy consumption in these facilities. In this paper, thorough the modeling of a typical building, water and energy consumption are measured. Then, After application of modern methods known to be effective in saving water and energy, including the ozone treatment for cooling towers and shade installation for windows, i.e. fins and overhangs, the amount of water and energy saving are compared with the base case using the Simergy model. The annual water consumption of the building, by more than 50% reduction, has been reached to 500 cubic meters from 1024 cubic meters. The annual electric energy consumption has been decreased from 405,178 kWh to 340,944 kWh, which is about 16%. After modeling, monthly peak of electrical energy consumption of 49,428 has dropped to 40,562 kWh. The reduction of 18% in the monthly peak can largely reduce the expenses of electricity consumption at peak.

Key Words
water and energy saving; water and energy modeling; wet cooling towers; Simergy model

Address
(1) Abtin Ataei, Zeinab Hamidzadeh, Navid Bagheri:
Department of Energy Engineering, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Abtin Ataei, Jun-Ki Choi:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, USA.

Abstract
Migration of leachate generated through embankment of construction waste soil (CWS) in low-lying areas was studied through physical and chemical analysis. A leachate solution containing soluble cations from CWS was found to have a pH above 9.0. To determine the distribution coefficients in the alkali solution, column and migration tests were conducted in the laboratory. The physical and chemical properties of CWS satisfied environmental soil criteria; however, the pH was high. The effective diffusion coefficients for CWS ions fell within the range of 0.725 - 3.3 × 10-6 cm2/s. Properties of pore water and the amount of undissolved gas in pore water influenced advection.diffusion behavior. Contaminants migrating from CWS exhibited time-dependent concentration profiles and an advective component of transport. Thus, the transport equations for CWS contaminant concentrations satisfied the differential equations in accordance with Fick's 2nd law. Therefore, the migration of the contaminant plume when the landfilling CWS reaches water table can be predicted based on pH using the effective diffusion coefficient determined in a laboratory test.

Key Words
calcium hydroxide; advection; diffusion; ICP-AES; contamination; construction waste soil

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeongsu-gu, Incheon 406-772, Republic of Korea.


Abstract
Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] adsorption on lateritic soil and lateritic soil blended with black cotton (BC) soil, marine clay and bentonite clay were studied in the laboratory using batch adsorption techniques. In the present investigation the natural laterite soil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% BC soil, marine clay and bentonite clay separately. The interactions on test soils have been studied with respect to the linear, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The linear isotherm parameter, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined from the from the batch adsorption tests. The adsorption of Cr (VI) on natural laterite soil and blended laterite soil was determined using double beam spectrophotometer. The distribution coefficients obtained were 1.251, 1.359 and 2.622 L/kg for lateritic soil blended with 10%, 20% and 30% BC soil; 5.396, 12.973 and 48.641 L/kg for lateritic soil blended with marine clay and 5.093, 8.148 and 12.179 L/kg for lateritic soil blended with bentonite clay respectively. The experimental data fitted well to the Langmuir model as observed from the higher value of correlation coefficient. Soil pH and iron content in soil(s) has greater influence on Cr (VI) adsorption. From the study it is concluded that laterite soil can be blended with clayey soils for removing Cr (VI) by adsorption.

Key Words
blended lateritic soil; hexavalent chromium; batch tests; adsorption isotherms

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal Srinivasnagar PO 575025, India.



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