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CONTENTS
Volume 1, Number 4, December 2012
 

Abstract
We review the research literature on relationship between environmental regulation and industrial development in three aspects of environmental regulation and investment, environmental regulation and efficiency, environmental regulation and trade. Indeed, the linkage between environmental regulation and material consumption of industrial system is absent. Environmental regulation is measured as the expenditure share for industrial pollutants abatement, and effluent charge intensity. Using panel-level data from 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, we build correlation models between material consumption and environmental regulation, results show that: (1) there are significant quadratic function relationship between material consumption and environmental regulation. And there is the fact that inflection point exists. (2) On basis of inflection points, we make two remarkable reflections. Firstly, the inflection points are the most important scale to judge reasonability and performance of regulations. Secondly, a Pareto improvement may occur when the regulations achieve a certain target. (3) Both intensities of industrial pollutants abatement expenditure and effluent charge have not yet achieved the expected target in most regions of mainland China at present. And most of regions of material consumption decreasing are distributed in western China. Main reasons lie in the impacts of industrial features as well as the regulations.

Key Words
material consumption of industrial system; environmental regulation; inflection point of curve; China

Address
Yiping Fang: Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China

Abstract
QSAR models for chlorinated alkenes were developed between ELUMO and their chlorine and carbon content. The aim is to provide valid QSAR model which is statistically validated for ELUMO prediction. Different molecular descriptors, NCl, NC and EHOMO have been used to take into account relevant information provided by molecular features and physicochemical properties. The best model were selected using Partial Least Square (PLS) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) led to models with satisfactory predictive ability for a data set of 15 chlorinated alkene compounds.

Key Words
chlorinated alkene; ELUMO; QSAR; uncertainty

Address
Walter Z. Tang and Fang Wang: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174, USA

Abstract
This study investigated exposure to air pollutants in rooms in low-income houses at Shomolu (R1), Mafoluku (R2) and Mushin (R3) in Lagos state. The concentrations of most measured exceeded limits of Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) for indoor air quality. Air quality index (AQI) in rooms studied was unhealthy for sensitive people in terms of CO, unhealthy in terms of SO2 and very unhealthy in terms of NO2 while moderate air quality was obtained in terms of PM10 in most rooms. High concentrations of carbontetrachloride, formaldehyde and xylene measured could have been responsible for some of the health complaints of the occupants. Factor analysis shows that cooking with kerosene, use of gasoline generator and insecticide were the major contributors to indoor air pollution in these rooms. Therefore, there is need to urgently tackle poverty as all affected by these pollutants were poor who live in substandard houses without kitchens.

Key Words
air quality index; indoor air pollution; hazard quotient; cancer risk; factor analysis

Address
Azeez Luqmon, Adeoye Mariam, Lawal Abdulazeez, Abdulsalami Ibrahim and Majolagbe Adija: Industrial and Environmental Chemistry Unit, Chemical Sciences Department, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Olaogun Musa: Environmental Chemistry Unit, Environmental Accord Nigeria, Limited, Gbagada, Lagos State, Nigeria; Agbaogun Babatunde: Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

Abstract
Tris (2-methyl-1-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (MAPO) is extremely poisonous and persistent in aqueous media. An efficient UV/nanoTiO2 process was employed for its mineralization in a high duty falling film photo-reactor based on an experimental design scheme that considers interactions between the main variables. The influencing variables and their range were determined with preliminary studies. The results show substrate mineralization to some extent under mild conditions of: T = 30 °C, pH = 8.5, [MAPO]0 = 60 mg L-1 and [TiO2] =110 mg L-1. The relative importance of the influencing parameters were initial pH > temperature > [MAPO]0 > [TiO2]; while the interdependence of all the parameters was significant. Accordingly, a reduced quadratic expression was developed. Meanwhile, mineralization kinetic studies, based on chemical oxygen demand, revealed a power law model with order of 2.6 during process time until 150 min.

Key Words
MAPO; photocatalysis; nanoparticle; falling film reactor; response surface methodology; kinetic

Address
J. Saien, A. Raeisi and M. Norouzi: Department of Applied Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174, Iran; A.R. Soleyman: Department of Applied Chemistry, Malayer University, Malayer 65719, Iran

Abstract
This study entails establishing reference standard sand in Nigeria for engineering and geoenvironmental research work. Sands from four geographical locations in southwestern Nigeria were examined for baseline geotechnical and mineralogical properties. A total of sixteen sand samples were collected. The samples were air dried and subjected to tests in accordance with standard specifications. The tests carried out were: specific gravity, grain size analysis, moisture content, bulk density, porosity, void ratio, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and Differential Thermal Analysis. The properties of the samples were compared with a standard (Ottawa sand in Illinois of the United States) in order to find out which of the four samples selected from southwestern Nigeria could serve as standard baseline sand. The results show that Igbokoda sand has geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics closest to Ottawa sand. It was therefore concluded that Igbokoda sand could be used as a standard baseline sand for research work in southwestern Nigeria and other parts of Nigeria since it needs little processing to bring it to the same level as standard baseline sand, like the Ottawa sand.

Key Words
Igbokoda sand; baseline properties; laboratory experimental sand; geochemical characteristics; x-ray diffraction; Ottawa sand

Address
Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri and David O. Fijabi: Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


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