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CONTENTS
Volume 3, Number 3, July 2016
 

Abstract
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Key Words
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Address
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione, Aerospaziale, Università degli Studi di Napoli \"Federico II\", Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italia

Abstract
The increase of air traffic volume has brought an increasing amount of issues related to carbon and NOx emissions and noise pollution. Aircraft manufacturers are concentrating their efforts to develop technologies to increase aircraft efficiency and consequently to reduce pollutant discharge and noise emission. Ultra High By-Pass Ratio engine concepts provide reduction of fuel consumption and noise emission thanks to a decrease of the jet velocity exhausting from the engine nozzles. In order to keep same thrust, mass flow and therefore section of fan/nacelle diameter should be increased to compensate velocity reduction. Such feature will lead to close-coupled architectures for engine installation under the wing. A strong jet-wing interaction resulting in a change of turbulent mixing in the aeroacoustic field as well as noise enhancement due to reflection phenomena are therefore expected. On the other hand, pressure fluctuations on the wing as well as on the fuselage represent the forcing loads, which stress panels causing vibrations. Some of these vibrations are re-emitted in the aeroacoustic field as vibration noise, some of them are transmitted in the cockpit as interior noise. In the present work, the interaction between a jet and wing or fuselage is reproduced by a flat surface tangential to an incompressible jet at different radial distances from the nozzle axis. The change in the aerodynamic field due to the presence of the rigid plate was studied by hot wire anemometric measurements, which provided a characterization of mean and fluctuating velocity fields in the jet plume. Pressure fluctuations acting on the flat plate were studied by cavity-mounted microphones which provided point-wise measurements in stream-wise and spanwise directions. Statistical description of velocity and wall pressure fields are determined in terms of Fourier-domain quantities. Scaling laws for pressure auto-spectra and coherence functions are also presented.

Key Words
turbulent jet; flat-plate; Corcos model; pressure spectra

Address
Alessandro Di Marco, Matteo Mancinelli and Roberto Camussi: Department of Engineering, University Roma TRE, Via Vito Volterra 62, 00146 Rome, Italy

Abstract
In this work results from an underwater experiment on flow-induced noise in the interior of a towed body generated from a surrounding turbulent boundary layer are presented. The measurements were performed with a towed body under open sea conditions at towing depths below 100 m and towing speeds ranging from 2.4 m/s to 6.2 m/s (4 kn to 12 kn). Focus is given in the experiments to the relation between (outer) wall pressure fluctuations and the (inner) hydroacoustic near-field on the reverse side of a flat plate. The plate configuration consists of a sandwich structure with an (thick) outer polyurethane layer supported by an inner thin layer from fibre-reinforced plastics. Parameters of the turbulent boundary layer are estimated in order to analyse scaling relations of wall-pressure fluctuations, interior hydroacoustic noise, and the reduction of pressure fluctuations through the plate.

Key Words
interior flow noise; turbulent boundary layer; underwater experiment

Address
J. Abshagen, D. Küter and V. Nejedl : Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre WTD 71, Berliner Stra

Abstract
In this paper, we study a problem of passive suppression of helicopter Ground Resonance (GR) using a single degree freedom Nonlinear Energy Sink (NES), GR is a dynamic instability involving the coupling of the blades motion in the rotational plane (i.e. the lag motion) and the helicopter fuselage motion. A reduced linear system reproducing GR instability is used. It is obtained using successively Coleman transformation and binormal transformation. The analysis of the steadystate responses of this model is performed when a NES is attached on the helicopter fuselage. The NES involves an essential cubic restoring force and a linear damping force. The analysis is achieved applying complexification-averaging method. The resulting slow-flow model is finally analyzed using multiple scale approach. Four steady-state responses corresponding to complete suppression, partial suppression through strongly modulated response, partial suppression through periodic response and no suppression of the GR are highlighted. An algorithm based on simple criterions is developed to predict these steady-state response regimes. Numerical simulations of the complete system confirm this analysis of the slow-flow dynamics. A parametric analysis of the influence of the NES damping coefficient and the rotor speed on the response regime is finally proposed.

Key Words
helicopter ground resonance; passive control; nonlinear energy sink; relaxation oscillations; strongly modulated response

Address
Baptiste Bergeot: INSA Centre Val de Loire, Université François Rabelais de Tours, LMR EA 2640, Campus de Blois, 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie, CS 23410, 41034 Blois Cedex, France
Sergio Bellizzi and Bruno Cochelin :LMA, CNRS UPR7051, Aix-Marseille Univ., Centrale Marseille, F-13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France

Abstract
In this work, a strategy for passive vibration control of periodic structures is proposed which involves adding a periodic array of simple resonant devices for creating band gaps. It is shown that such band gaps can be generated at low frequencies as opposed to the well known Bragg scattering effects when the wavelengths have to meet the length of the elementary cell of a periodic structure. For computational purposes, the wave finite element (WFE) method is investigated, which provides a straightforward and fast numerical means for identifying band gaps through the analysis of dispersion curves. Also, the WFE method constitutes an efficient and fast numerical means for analyzing the impact of band gaps in the attenuation of the frequency response functions of periodic structures. In order to highlight the relevance of the proposed approach, numerical experiments are carried out on a 1D academic rod and a 3D aircraft fuselage-like structure.

Key Words
wave finite element method; periodic structures; band gaps; passive vibration control; aircraft fuselage

Address
Priscilla B. Silva and José R. F. Arruda : Departamento de Mecânica Computacional, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, R. Mendeleyev, 200, 13083-860, Campinas-SP, Brazil
Jean-Mathieu Mencik : INSA Centre Val de Loire, Université François Rabelais de Tours, LMR EA 2640, Campus de Blois, 3 rue de la chocolaterie, CS 23410, 41034 Blois Cedex, France

Abstract
Nowadays, the interest of aerospace and automotive industries on virtual testing of mediumfrequency vibrational behavior of shallow shell structures is growing. The development of software capable of predicting the vibrational response in such frequency range is still an open question because classical methods (i.e., FEM, SEA) are not fully suitable for the medium-frequency bandwidth. In this context the Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) is taking place as an ad-hoc technique to address mediumfrequency problems. It is a Trefftz method based on a weak variational formulation. It allows great flexibility because any shape function that satisfies the governing equations can be used. This work further develops such theory. In particular, orthotropic materials are introduced in the VTCR formulation for shallow shell structures. A significant numerical example is proposed to show the strategy.

Key Words
VTCR; medium-frequency; orthotropic materials; shallow shells

Address
Alessandro Cattabiani, Hervé Riou and Pierre Ladevèze : LMT-Cachan, ENS Cachan/CNRS/Paris-Saclay-University, 61 avenue du Président Wilson, F-94230 Cachan France
Andrea Barbarulo : Laboratoire MSSMat, Centrale-Supélec/CNRS UMR8579, Grande Voie des Vignes, Cedex, Chatenay-Malabry, 92290, France

Abstract
Stiff and light fibre reinforced composites as used in air- and space-craft applications tend to high sound emission. Therefore, the damping properties are essential for the entire structural and acoustic engineering. Viscous damping is an established and reasonably linear model of the dissipation behaviour. Commonly, it is assumed to be isotropic and constant over all modes. For anisotropic materials it depends on the fibre orientation as well as the elastic and thermal material properties. To portray the orthogonal anisotropic behaviour, a model for unidirectional fibre reinforced plastics (frp) has been developed based on the classical laminate theory by ADAMS and BACON starting in 1973. Their approach includes three damping coefficients - for longitudinal damping in fibre direction, damping transversal to the fibres and shear based dissipation. The damping of a laminate is then accumulated layer wise including the anisotropic stiffness. So far, the model has been applied mainly to thermoset matrix materials. In this study, an experimental parameter estimation for different thermoplastic frp with angle ply and cross ply layups was carried out by measuring free vibrations of cantilever beams. The results show potential and limits of the ADAMS/BACON damping criterion. In addition, a possibility of modelling the anisotropic damping is shown. The implementation in standard FEA software is used to study the influence of boundary conditions on the damping properties and numerically estimate the radiated sound power of thin-walled frp parts.

Key Words
damping; thermoplastic composites; FEA simulation; anisotropy

Address
Matthias Klaerner, Mario Wuehrl and Lothar Kroll :Institute of Lightweight Structures Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz, Germany
Steffen Marburg : Lehrstuhl für Akustik mobiler Systeme, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany

Abstract
Macroperforations improve the sound absorption performance of porous materials in acoustic cavities and in waveguides. In an acoustic cavity, enhanced noise reduction is achieved using porous materials having macroperforations. Double porosity materials are obtained by filling these macroperforations with different poroelastic materials having distinct physical properties. The locations of macroperforations in porous layers can be chosen based on cavity mode shapes. In this paper, the effect of variation of macroporosity and double porosity in porous materials on noise reduction in an acoustic cavity is presented. This analysis is done keeping each perforation size constant. Macroporosity of a porous material is the fraction of area covered by macro holes over the entire porous layer. The number of macroperforations decides macroporosity value. The system under investigation is an acoustic cavity having a layer of poroelastic material rigidly attached on one side and excited by an internal point source. The overall sound pressure level (SPL) inside the cavity coupled with porous layer is calculated using mixed displacement-pressure finite element formulation based on Biot-Allard theory. A 32 node, cubic polynomial brick element is used for discretization of both the cavity and the porous layer. The overall SPL in the cavity lined with porous layer is calculated for various macroporosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4. The results show that variation in macroporosity of the porous layer affects the overall SPL inside the cavity. This variation in macroporosity is based on the cavity mode shapes. The optimum range of macroporosities in poroelastic layer is determined from this analysis. Next, SPL is calculated considering periodic and nodal line based optimum macroporosity. The corresponding results show that locations of macroperforations based on mode shapes of the acoustic cavity yield better noise reduction compared to those based on nodal lines or periodic macroperforations in poroelastic material layer. Finally, the effectiveness of double porosity materials in terms of overall sound pressure level, compared to equivolume double layer poroelastic materials is investigated; for this the double porosity material is obtained by filling the macroperforations based on mode shapes of the acoustic cavity.

Key Words
macroperforations; macroporosity; double porosity; cavity mode shapes; finite element method

Address
C. Sujatha and Shantanu S. Kore : Machine Design Section, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India


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