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Volume 31, Number 5, June10 2019

The estimation of moment and rotation in steel rack connections could be significantly helpful parameters for designers and constructors in the initial designing and construction phases. Accordingly, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) has been optimized to estimate the moment and rotation in steel rack connection based on variable input characteristics as beam depth, column thickness, connector depth, moment and loading. The prediction and estimating of ELM has been juxtaposed with genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) methods. Test outcomes have indicated a surpass in accuracy predicting and the capability of generalization in ELM approach than GP or ANN. Therefore, the application of ELM has been basically promised as an alternative way to estimate the moment and rotation of steel rack connection. Further particulars are presented in details in results and discussion.

Key Words
steel racks; moment rotation behavior; upright column; beam-end connector; ELM

(1) Mahdi Shariati, Nguyen Thoi Trung:
Division of Computational Mathematics and Engineering, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
(2) Mahdi Shariati, Nguyen Thoi Trung:
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
(3) Karzan Wakil:
Research Center, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq;
(4) Peyman Mehrabi:
Department of Civil Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran;
(5) Maryam Safa:
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam;
(6) Majid Khorami:
Universidad UTE, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Calle Rumipamba s/n y Bourgeois, Quito, Ecuador.

In this study, in-situ static and dynamic tests of four pre-stressed concrete (PC) track beams with different span lengths and curvatures in a straddle monorail transit system were reported. In the static load tests, the strain and deflection at critical sections of the PC track beams were measured to determine the load bearing capacity and stiffness. The dynamic responses of strain, deflection, acceleration, and displacement at key positions of the PC track beams were measured under different train speeds and train loads to systematically study the dynamic behaviors of the PC track beams. A three-dimensional finite element model of the track beam-vehicle coupled vibration system was established to help understand the dynamic behavior of the system, and the model was verified using the test results. The research results show that the curvature, span length, train speed, and train loads have significant influence on the dynamic responses of the PC track beams. The dynamic performance of the PC track beams in the curve section is susceptible to dynamic loads. Appropriate train loads can effectively reduce the impact of the train on the PC track beam. The PC track beams allow good riding comfort.

Key Words
straddle monorail; PC track beam; in-situ static and dynamic tests; finite element; coupled vibration; dynamic responses; riding comfort

(1) Yongqing Yang, Deng Yang, Hongye Gou:
Department of Bridge Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China;
(2) Yi Bao:
Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA.

Portal frame structures, made up of cold-formed steel trusses, are increasingly being used for lightweight building construction. A novel pin-jointed moment connector, called the Howick Rivet Connector (HRC), was developed and tested previously in T-joints and truss assemblage to determine its reliable strength, stiffness and moment resisting capacity. This paper presents an experimental study on the HRC, in moment resisting cold-formed steel trusses. The connection method is devised where intersecting truss members are confined by a gusset connected by HRCs to create a rigid moment connection. In total, three large scale experiments were conducted to determine the elastic capacity and cyclic behaviour of the gusseted truss moment connection comprising HRC connectors. Theoretical failure loads were also calculated and compared against the experimental failure loads. Results show that the HRCs work effectively at carrying high shear loads between the members of the truss, enabling rigid behaviour to be developed and giving elastic behaviour without tilting up to a defined yield point. An extended gusset connection has been proposed to maximize the moment carrying capacity in a truss knee connection using the HRCs, in which they are aligned around the perimeter of the gusset to maximize the moment capacity and to increase the stability of the truss knee joint.

Key Words
cold-formed steel; novel connection; moment connection; pinned joint; HRC

(1) Chris Mathison:
Holmes Consulting LP, Auckland, New Zealand;
(2) Krishanu Roy, G. Charles Clifton, Amin Ahmadi, Rehan Masood, James B.P. Lim:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;
(3) Rehan Masood:
Department of Construction Engineering & Management, NIT-SCEE, National University of Science and Technology, H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan.

We in this paper study nonlinear bending of a functionally graded porous nanobeam subjected to multiple physical load based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory. For more reasonable analysis of nanobeams made of porous functionally graded magneto-thermo-electro-elastic materials (PFGMTEEMs), both constituent materials and the porosity appear gradient distribution in the present expression of effective material properties, which is much more suitable to the actual compared with the conventional expression of effective material properties. Besides the displacement function regarding physical neutral surface is introduced to analyze mechanical behaviors of beams made of FGMs. Then we derive nonlinear governing equations of PFGMTEEMs beams using the principle of Hamilton. To obtain analytical solutions, a two-step perturbation method is developed in nonuniform electric field and magnetic field, and then we use it to solve nonlinear equations. Finally, the analytical solutions are utilized to perform a parametric analysis, where the effect of various physical parameters on static bending deformation of nanobeams are studied in detail, such as the nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, the ratio of nonlocal parameter to strain gradient parameter, porosity volume fraction, material volume fraction index, temperature, initial magnetic potentials and external electric potentials.

Key Words
bending; functionally graded porous materials; nonlocal strain graded theory; multiple physical load

(1) Yang Gao, Wan-shen Xiao:
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, China;
(2) Haiping Zhu:
School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Western Sydney University, Locked, Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.

This article presents a unified mathematical model to investigate free and forced vibration responses of perforated thin and thick beams. Analytical models of the equivalent geometrical and material characteristics for regularly squared perforated beam are developed. Because of the shear deformation regime increasing in perforated structures, the investigation of dynamical behaviors of these structures becomes more complicated and effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation should be considered. So, both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are proposed for thin and short (thick) beams, respectively. Mathematical closed forms for the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors as well as the forced vibration time response are derived. The validity of the developed analytical procedure is verified by comparing the obtained results with both analytical and numerical analyses and good agreement is detected. Numerical studies are presented to illustrate effects of beam slenderness ratio, filling ratio, as well as the number of holes on the dynamic behavior of perforated beams. The obtained results and concluding remarks are helpful in mechanical design and industrial applications of large devices and small systems (MEMS) based on perforated structure.

Key Words
resonant frequencies; forced Vibration, perforated beam; dynamical behavior; filling ratio; semi-analytical method

(1) Alaa A. Abdelrahman, Abdallah M. Kabeel:
Mechanical Design & Production Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt;
(2) Mohamed A. Eltaher:
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
(3) Mohamed A. Eltaher:
Mechanical Design & Production Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt;
(4) Azza M. Abdraboh:
Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Banha University, Banha, Egypt;
(5) Asmaa A. Hendi:
Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah,P.O.Box 80327, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

This work presents a dynamic investigation of functionally graded (FG) plates resting on elastic foundation using a simple quasi-3D higher shear deformation theory (quasi-3D HSDT) in which the stretching effect is considered. The culmination of this theory is that in addition to taking into account the effect of thickness extension (εz ≠ 0), the kinematic is defined with only 4 unknowns, which is even lower than the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The elastic foundation is included in the formulation using the Pasternak mathematical model. The governing equations are deduced through the Hamilton's principle. These equations are then solved via closed-type solutions of the Navier type. The fundamental frequencies are predicted by solving the eigenvalue problem. The degree of accuracy of present solutions can be shown by comparing it to the 3D solution and other closed-form solutions available in the literature.

Key Words
vibration; FG plate; Quasi-3D HSDT

(1) Zoulikha Boukhlif, Mohammed Bouremana:
Laboratoire des Structures et Matériaux Avancés dans le Génie Civil et Travaux Publics, Faculté de Technologie, Département de Génie Civil, Université de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria;
(2) Fouad Bourada, Mohamed Bourada, Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria;
(3) Fouad Bourada:
Département des Sciences et de la Technologie, centre universitaire de Tissemsilt, BP 38004 Ben Hamouda, Algérie;
(4) Abdelmoumen Anis Bousahla:
Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi-échelle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Département de Physique, Université de Sidi Bel Abbés, Algeria;
(5) Abdelmoumen Anis Bousahla:
Centre Universitaire Ahmed Zabana de Relizane, Algeria;
(6) Abdelouahed Tounsi, Mohammed A. Al-Osta:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

To move forward in large steps rather than in small increments, the community would benefit from a systematic and comprehensive database of multi-scale composites and measured properties, driven by comprehensive studies with a full range of types of fiber-reinforced polymers. The multi-scale hierarchy is a promising chemical approach that provides superior performance in synergistically integrated microstructured fibers and nanostructured materials in composite applications. Achieving high-efficiency thermal conductivity and mechanical properties with a simple surface treatment on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is important for multi-scale composites. The main purpose of the project is to introduce ozone-treated SWCNTs between an epoxy matrix and basalt fibers to improve mechanical properties and thermal conductivity by enhancing dispersion and interfacial adhesion. The obvious advantage of this approach is that it is much more effective than the conventional approach at improving the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of materials under an equivalent load, and shows particularly significant improvement for high loads. Such an effort could accelerate the conversion of multi-scale composites into high performance materials and provide more rational guidance and fundamental understanding towards realizing the theoretical limits of thermal and mechanical properties.

Key Words
fiber reinforced polymers (FRP); fracture/fracture criteria; hybrid structures; shear-lag effect; bending and shear strength

Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 22212, South Korea.

Current paper deals with thermoelastic static and free vibrational behaviors of axisymmetric thick cylinders reinforced with functionally graded (FG) randomly oriented graphene subjected to internal pressure and thermal gradient loads. The heat transfer and mechanical analyses of randomly oriented graphene-reinforced nanocomposite (GRNC) cylinders are facilitated by developing a weak form mesh-free method based on moving least squares (MLS) shape functions. Furthermore, in order to estimate the material properties of GRNC with temperature dependent components, a modified Halpin-Tsai model incorporated with two efficiency parameters is utilized. It is assumed that the distributions of graphene nano-sheets are uniform and FG along the radial direction of nanocomposite cylinders. By comparing with the exact result, the accuracy of the developed method is verified. Also, the convergence of the method is successfully confirmed. Then we investigated the effects of graphene distribution and volume fraction as well as thermo-mechanical boundary conditions on the temperature distribution, static response and natural frequency of the considered FG-GRNC thick cylinders. The results disclosed that graphene distribution has significant effects on the temperature and hoop stress distributions of FG-GRNC cylinders. However, the volume fraction of graphene has stronger effect on the natural frequencies of the considered thick cylinders than its distribution.

Key Words
natural frequency; thermal gradient load; temperature dependent graphene; nanocomposite thick cylinder; mesh-free method

Advanced Research Laboratory for Multifunctional LightWeight Structures (ARL-MLS), Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

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