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Volume 3, Number 3, September 2016

This article reports the development of biodegradable photoluminescent polymer (BPLP)-based nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating either magnetic nanoparticles (BPLP-MNPs) or gadopentate dimeglumine (BPLP-Gd NPs), for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the study is to compare these nanoparticles in terms of their surface properties, fluorescence intensities, MR imaging capabilities, and in vitro characteristics to choose the most promising dual-imaging nanoprobe. Results indicate that BPLP-MNPs and BPLP-Gd NPs had a size of 195 +-43 nm and 161+-55 nm, respectively and showed good stability in DI water and 10% serum for 5 days. BPLP-Gd NPs showed similar fluorescence as the original BPLP materials under UV light, whereas BPLP-MNPs showed comparatively less fluorescence. VSM and MRI confirmed that the NPs retained their magnetic properties following encapsulation within BPLP. Further, in vitro studies using HPV-7 immortalized prostate epithelial cells and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) showed > 70% cell viability up to 100 µg/ml NP concentration. Dose-dependent uptake of both types of NPs by PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells was also observed. Thus, our results indicate that BPLP-Gd NPs would be more appropriate for use as a dual-imaging probe as the contrast agent does not mask the fluorescence of the polymer. Future studies would involve in vivo imaging following administration of BPLP-Gd NPs for biomedical applications including cancer detection.

Key Words
nanoparticles; fluorescent; MRI; contrast agent; dual imaging

Jyothi U. Menon, Parth Jadeja, Pranjali Tambe, Dheeraj Thakore, Kytai T. Nguyen:
Bioengineering Department, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA 76019
Graduate Biomedical Engineering Program, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA 75390
Shanrong Zhang, Masaya Takahashi: Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA 75390
Zhiwei Xie, Jian Yang:4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

Two-dimensional (2D) cell culture and in vivo cancer model systems have been used to understand cancer biology and develop drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Although cell culture and in vivo model studies have provided critical contribution about disease mechanism, these models present important problems. 2D tissue culture models lack of three dimensional (3D) structure, while animal models are expensive, time consuming, and inadequate to reflect human tumor biology. Up to the present, scaffolds and 3D matrices have been used for many different clinical applications in regenerative medicine such as heart valves, corneal implants and artificial cartilage. While tissue engineering has focused on clinical applications in regenerative medicine, scaffolds can be used in in vitro tumor models to better understand tumor relapse and metastasis. Because 3D in vitro models can partially mimic the tumor microenvironment as follows. This review focuses on different scaffold production techniques and polymer types for tumor model applications in cancer tissue engineering and reports recent studies about in vitro 3D polymeric tumor models including breast, ewing sarcoma, pancreas, oral, prostate and brain cancers.

Key Words
polymeric scaffolds; 3D tumor models; cancer tissue engineering; in vitro cancer research

Seda Ceylan and Nimet Bölgen: Mersin University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, Mersin, Turkey
Seda Ceylan: Adana Science and Technology University, Bioengineering Department, Adana, Turkey

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