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Volume 13, Number 2, February 2002

This paper presents a computational method for a confidence region of identified parameters
which are affected by measurement noise and error contained in prescribed parameters. The method is
based on sensitivities of the identified parameters with respect to model parameter error and measurement
noise along with the law of error propagation. By conducting numerical experiments on simple models, it
is confirmed that the confidence region coincides well with the results of numerical experiments.
Furthermore, the optimum arrangement of sensor locations is evaluated when uncertainty exists in
prescribed parameters, based on the concept that square sum of coefficients of variations of identified
results attains minimum. Good agreement of the theoretical results with those of numerical simulation
confirmed validity of the theory.

Key Words
parameter identification; sensitivity analysis; confidence region; optimal sensor location.

Tetsushi Kurita, Seismic Engineering Department, Tokyo Electric Power Services Co. Ltd., Higashi-Ueno 3-3-3, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-0015, Japan
Kunihito Matsui, Department of Civil Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Hatoyama, Hiki, Saitama 350-0394, Japan

This paper presents the convected material frame approach to study the nonlinear behavior of
inelastic frame structures. The convected material frame approach is a modification of the co-rotational
approximation by incorporating an adaptive convected material frame in the basic definition of the
displacement vector and strain tensor. In the formulation, each discrete element is associated with a local
coordinate system that rotates and translates with the element. For each load increment, the corresponding
strain-displacement and nodal force-stress relationships are defined in the updated local coordinates, and
based on the updated element geometry. The rigid body motion and deformation displacements are
decoupled for each increment. This modified approach incorporates the geometrical nonlinearities through
the continuous updating of the material frame geometry. A generalized nonlinear function is used to
derive the inelastic constitutive relation and the kinematic hardening is considered. The equation of
motion is integrated by an explicit procedure and it involves only vector assemblage and vector storage in
the analysis by assuming a lumped mass matrix of diagonal form. Several numerical examples are
demonstrated in close agreement with the solutions obtained by the ANSYS code. Numerical studies show
that the proposed approach is capable of investigating large deflection of inelastic planar structures and
providing an excellent numerical performance.

Key Words
convected material frame approach; explicit finite element analysis; inelastic frame structures.

Yaw- Jeng Chiou, Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, R.O.C.
Yeon-Kang Wang, Department of Civil Engineering, Chung-Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 335, R.O.C.
Pang-An Hsiao and Yi-Lung Chen, Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, R.O.C.

In this study, a new functional is obtained for folded plates with geometric (kinematic) and
dynamic (natural) boundary conditions. This functional is the combination of two different functionals.
Both functionals are obtained for thick plates which carry in-plane and lateral forces. A new mixed finite
element is developed with 4

Key Words
Reissner plate; folded plate; mixed-finite element.

Nihal Eratli and A. Yalcin Akoz, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 80626 Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey

Static and dynamic penetration tests of reinforced concrete (RC) slab specimens are described
and discussed. The experimental study was aimed at a better understanding of mechanisms that are
involved in dynamic penetration, through their identification in static tests, and by establishing their
relative influence in similar dynamic cases. The RC specimens were 80

Key Words
impact; penetration; perforation; reinforced concrete barriers.

Avraham N. Dancygier and David Z. Yankelevsky, Department of Civil Engineering and National Building Research Institute, Technion, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel

The infrastructure system in the United States has been aging faster than the resource
available to restore them. Therefore decision for allocating the resources is based in part on the condition
of the structural system. This paper proposes to use neural network to predict the overall rating of the
structural system because of the successful applications of neural network to other fields which require a

Key Words
infrastructure; systems; evaluation; bridges; ratings; neural networks.

Augusto V. Molina, Parson Transportation Group, New York, U.S.A.
Karen C. Chou, Department of Mechanical & Civil Engineering, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001, U.S.A.

The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic behavior of elastic beams subjected
to moving loads. Although analytical methods are available, they have limitations with respect to
complicated structures. The use of computer technology in recent years is an effective way to solve the
problem; thus using the latest technology this study establishes a finite-element solution procedure to
investigate dynamic behaviors of a typical elastic beam having a set of constant geometric properties and
various span lengths. Both the dead load of the beam and traffic load are applied in which the traffic load
is considered a concentrated moving force with various traveling passage speeds on the beam. Dynamic
behaviors including deflection, shear, and bending moment due to moving loads are obtained by both
analytical and finite element methods; for simple structures, they have an excellent agreement. The
numerical results show that based on analytical methods the fundamental mode is good enough to
estimate the dynamic deflection along the beam, but is not sufficient to simulate the total response of the
shear force or the bending moment. The linear dynamic behavior of the elastic beams subjected to
multiple exciting loads can easily be found by linear superposition, and the geometric nonlinear results
caused by large deformation and axial force of the beam are always underestimated with only a few
exceptions which are indicated. In order to make the results useful, they have been nondimensionalized
and presented in graphical form.

Key Words
dynamic; characteristics; beams; bridges; moving loads; traffic loads.

Chia-Chih Tang, Department of Civil Engineering, Chinese Military Academy, 1 Wei-Wu Rd. Feng-Shan, 83000, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Yang-Cheng Wang, Academic Affairs Development Office, National Defense University, 156 Chung-Shin Rd. Lung-Tang, 32500, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

The problem of dynamic analysis of truss structures based on probability is studied in this
paper. Considering the randomness of both physical parameters (elastic module and mass density) of
structural materials and geometric dimension of bars respectively or simultaneously, the stiffness and mass
matrixes of the elements and structure have been built. The structure dynamic characteristic based on
probability is analyzed, and the expressions of numeral characteristics of inherence frequency random
variable are derived from the Rayleigh

Key Words
truss structure; physical parameter; geometric dimension; random variables; dynamic characteristic analysis.

J.J. Chen, J.W. Che, H.A. Sun, H.B. Ma and M.T. Cui, School of Electronic Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi

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