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CONTENTS
Volume 26, Number 6, December 2020
 


Abstract
This research focused on analyzing the post-fire behavior of high-performance concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns, with the concrete containing tire rubber and steel fibers, under axial compressive loading. The finite element (FE) modeling of such heated columns containing recycled aggregate is a branch of this field which has not received the proper attention of researchers. Better understanding the post-fire behavior of these columns by measuring their residual strength and deformation is critical for achieving the minimum repair level required for structures damaged in the fire. Therefore, to develop this model, 19 groups of confined and unconfined specimens with the variables including the volume ratio of steel fibers, tire rubber content, diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio of the steel tube, and exposure temperature were considered. The ABAQUS software was employed to model the tested specimens so that the accurate behavior of the FE-modeled specimens could be examined under test conditions. To achieve desirable results for the modeling of the specimens, in addition to the novel procedure described in this research, the modified versions of models presented by previous researchers were also utilized. After the completion of modeling, the load-axial strain and load-lateral strain relationships, ultimate strength, and failure mode of the modeled CFST specimens were evaluated against the test data, through which the satisfactory accuracy of this modeling procedure was established. Afterward, using a parametric study, the effect of factors such as the concrete core strength at different temperatures and the D/t ratio on the behavior of the CFST columns was explored. Finally, the compressive strength values obtained from the FE model were compared with the corresponding values predicted by various codes, the results of which indicated that most codes were conservative in terms of these predictions.

Key Words
tire rubber; elevated temperatures; compressive strength; concrete-filled steel tube (CFST); codes; prediction; confinement; load-strain curves; finite element

Address
Amirhossein Karimi, Mahdi Nematzadeh: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Saleh Mohammad-Ebrahimzadeh-Sepasgozar: Department of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract
Dams are vital infrastructures that are expected to maintain their stability during seismic excitations. Accordingly, cemented material dams are an emerging type, which are being increasingly used around the world owing to benefiting from advantages of both earth-fill and concrete gravity dams, which should be designed safely when subjected to strong ground motion. In the present paper, the seismic performance of a cemented sand and gravel (CSG) dam is assessed using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) method by accounting for two failure modes of tension cracking and base joint sliding considering the dam-reservoir-foundation interactions. To take the seismic uncertainties into account, the dam is analyzed under a suite of ground motion records and then, the effect of friction angle for base sliding as well as deformability of the foundation are investigated on the response of dam. To carry out the analyses, the Cindere dam in Turkey is selected as a case study, and various limit states corresponding to seismic performance levels of the dam are determined aiming to estimate the seismic fragilities. Based on the results, sliding of the Cindere dam could be serious under the maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Besides, dam faces are mostly to be cracked under such level of intensity. Moreover, the results indicate that as friction angle increases, probability of sliding between dam and foundation is reduced whereas, increases tensile cracking. Lastly, it is observed that foundation stiffening increases the probability of dam sliding but, reduces the tensile damage in the dam body.

Key Words
cemented sand and gravel (CSG) dam; incremental dynamic analysis (IDA); seismic fragility analysis; Cindere dam; sliding failure mode; tension cracking

Address
Khadije Mahmoodi, Ali Noorzad and Ahmad Mahboubi: Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Concrete can lose its alkalinity by concrete carbonation causing steel corrosion. Thus, the determination of the carbonation depth is necessary. An empirical model is proposed in this research to predict the carbonation depth of concrete using Gene expression programming (GEP). The GEP model was trained and validated using a large and reliable database collected from the literature. The model was developed using the six parameters that predominantly control the carbonation depth of concrete including carbon dioxide CO2 concentration, relative humidity, water-to-cement ratio, maximum aggregate size, aggregate to binder ratio and carbonation period. The model was statistically evaluated and then compared to the Jiang et al. model. A parametric study was finally performed to check the proposed GEP model's sensitivity to the selected input parameters.

Key Words
carbonation depth of concrete; gene expression programming; Jiang model

Address
Yasmin Z Murad, Bashar K Tarawneh and Ahmed M Ashteyat: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jordan, 11942, Amman, Jordan

Abstract
Grading of aggregate influences significantly almost all of the concrete performances. The purpose of this paper is to propose practicable equations that express the optimized total aggregate gradation, by weight or by number of particles in a concrete mix. The principle is based on the fractal feature of the grading of combined aggregate in a solid skeleton of concrete. Therefore, equations are derived based on the so-called fractal dimension of the grain size distribution of aggregates. Obtained model was then applied in such a way a correlation between some properties of the dry concrete mix and the fractal dimension of the aggregate gradation has been built. This demonstrates that the parameter fractal dimension is an efficacious tool to establish a unified model to study the solid phase of concrete in order to design aggregate gradation to meet certain requirements or even to predict some characteristics of the dry concrete mixture.

Key Words
particle size distribution; grain number; fractal dimension; mathematical model; concrete mix design; optimization; concrete skeleton; coarse to fine aggregate ratio; fines content

Address
Soumia K. Sebsadji and Kaddour Chouicha: LMST Lab., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran Mohamed Boudiaf (USTO MB), Oran, Algeria

Abstract
Due to the construction difficulties of steel reinforced concrete (SRC), a new composite structure of steel and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SSFRC) is proposed for solving construction problems of SRC. This paper aims to investigate the bond properties and composition of interfacial bond stress between steel and steel fiber reinforced concrete. Considering the design parameters of section type, steel fiber ratio, interface embedded length and concrete cover thickness, a total of 36 specimens were fabricated. The bond properties of specimens were studied, and three different methods of calculating interfacial bond stress were analyzed. The results show: relative slip first occurs at the free end; Bearing capacity of specimens increases with the increase of interface embedded length. While the larger interface embedded length is, the smaller the average bond strength is. The average bond strength increases with the increase of concrete cover thickness and steel fiber ratio. And calculation method 3 proposed in this paper can not only reasonably explain the hardening stage after the loading end curve yielding, but also can be applied to steel reinforced high-strength concrete (SRHC) and steel reinforced recycled coarse aggregate concrete (SRRAC).

Key Words
steel fiber reinforced concrete; bond properties; calculation methods; fix bond diffusion length; bond stress

Address
Kai Wu, Huiming Zheng, Junfu Lin, Hui Li and Jixiang Zhao: College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210024, China

Abstract
The prediction of spall response of reinforced concrete members like columns and slabs have been attempted by earlier researchers with analytical solutions, as well as with empirical models developed from data generated from physical or numerical experiments, with different degrees of success. In this article, compared to the empirical models, more versatile and accurate models are developed based on model-free approach of artificial neural network (ANN). Synthetic data extracted from the results of numerical experiments from literature have been utilized for the purpose of training and testing of the ANN models. For two concrete members, namely, slabs and columns, different sets of ANN models were developed, each of which proved to have definite advantages over the corresponding empirical model reported in literature. In case of slabs, for all three categories of spall, the ANN model results were superior to the empirical models as evaluated by the various performance metrics, such as correlation, root mean square error, mean absolute error, maximum overestimation and maximum underestimation. The ANN models for each category of column spall could handle three variables together: namely, depth, spacing of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, as contrasted to the empirical models that handled one variable at a time, and at the same time yielded comparable performance. The application of the ANN models for spall prediction of concrete slabs and columns developed in this study has been discussed along with their limitations.

Key Words
concrete; spall; blast; artificial neural network; synthetic data

Address
Saha Dauji: NRB Office, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, India

Abstract
In this paper, the influence of axial compression ratio on the mechanical properties of new type joints of side span of rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular column-H-type steel beam is studied. Two new types of side-span joints of rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular column-H-type steel beam are designed and quasi-static tests of five new type joints with 1:2 scale reduction ratios are performed. The axial compression ratio of joint JD1 is 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, and the axial compression ratio of joint JD2 is 0.3 and 0.5. In the joint test, different axial forces were applied to the top of the column according to different axial compression ratios, and low-cyclic reciprocating load was applied on the beam. The stress and strain distribution, beam and column deformation, limit state, failure process, failure mechanism, stiffness degradation, ductile deformation and energy dissipation capacity of the joint were measured and analyzed. The results show that: with the increase of axial compression ratio, the ultimate bearing capacity of the joint decreases slightly, the plastic deformation decreases, and the stiffness and ductility decrease. According to the energy dissipation curve of the specimen, the equivalent damping coefficient also increases with the increase of axial compression ratio in a certain range, indicating that the increase of axial compression ratio can improve the seismic performance of the joint to a certain extent. The finite element method is used to simulate the joint test, and the test results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Key Words
new joint; concrete filled steel tube; axial compression ratio; seismic performance

Address
Dianzhong Liu, Hongxian Li and Huan Ren: School of Civil Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, No.5088 Xincheng Avenue, Jingyue Economic Development Zone, Changchun, Jilin, CN 130118, People

Abstract
Experimental and discrete element methods were used to investigate the effects of angle of Y shape non-persistent joint on the tensile behaviour of joint's bridge area under brazilian test. concrete samples with diameter of 100 mm and thikness of 40 mm were prepared. Within the specimen, two Y shape non-persistent notches were provided. The large notch lengths were 6 cm, 4 cm and 2 cm. the small notch lengths were 3 cm, 2 cm and 1 cm. The angle of larger notch related to horizontal axis was 0o, 30o, 60o, 90o. Totally, 12 different configuration systems were prepared for Y shape non-persistent joints. Also, 18 models with different Y shape non-persistent notch angle and notch length were prepared in numerical model. The large notch lengths were 6 cm, 4 cm and 2 cm. the small notch lengths were 3 cm, 2 cm and 1 cm. The angle of larger notch related to horizontal axis was 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150. Tensile strength of model materil was 1 MPa. The axial load was applied to the model by rate of 0.02 mm/sec. This testing showed that the failure process was mostly governed by the Y shape non-persistent joint angle and joint length. The tensile strengths of the specimens were related to the fracture pattern and failure mechanism of the discontinuities. It was shown that the tensile behaviour of discontinuities is related to the number of the induced tensile cracks which are increased by increasing the joint length and joint angle. The minimum tensile strength occurs when the angle of larger joint related to horizontal axis was 60o. Also, the maximum compressive strength occurs when the angle of larger joint related to horizontal axis was 90o. The tensile strength was decreased by increasing the notch length. The failure pattern and failure strength are similar in both methods i.e., the experimental testing and the numerical simulation methods.

Key Words
Y shape non-persistent joint; joint angle; joint length; PFC2D

Address
V. Sarfarazi, M. Hajiloo, E. Zarrin Ghalam: Department of Mining Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan, Iran
P. Ebneabbasi: Department of Civil Engineering, Azad University, Hamedan, Iran

Abstract
By the increasing amount of waste materials, it eventually dumped into the environment and covering a larger area of the landfill which cause several environmental pollution problems. The utilization of Palm Kernal Shell Ash (PKSA) in concrete might bring a great benefit in addressing both environmental and economic issues. This article investigates the effect of PKSA as a partial cement replacement of High Strength Concrete (HSC). Several concrete mixtures were prepared with different PKSA of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replaced by the cement mass. This procedure was replicated twice for the two different target mean strengths of 40 MPa and 50 MPa. The mixtures were prepared to test different fresh and hardened properties of HSC including slump test, the compressive strength of 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 days, flexural strength of 28-days, drying shrinkage, density measurement, and sorptivity. It was observed 10% PKSA replacement as optimum percentage which reduced the drying shrinkage, sorptivity, and density and improved the late-age compressive strength of concrete.

Key Words
palm kernel shell ash; high strength concrete; cement replacement; waste agriculture materials

Address
Mohammad A. Mosaberpanah: Department of Civil Engineering, Cyprus International University (CIU), Nicosia, North Cyprus, Turkey
Y.H. Mugahed Amran: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, Amran University, 9677 Quhal, Amran Province, Yemen
Abdulrahman Akoush: Department of Civil Engineering, Cyprus International University (CIU), Nicosia, North Cyprus, Turkey

Abstract
In this study, bond behavior of ordinary concrete and rebars with different diameters and development length was investigated by using Hinged Beam Test (HBT) and Eccentric Pull-Out Test (EPT) comparatively. For this purpose, three different rebar size and development length depending on rebar diameter were chosen as variables. Three specimens were produced for each series of specimens and totally 54 specimens were tested. At the end of the tests it was observed that obtained results for both tests were quite similar. On the other hand, increased bar size, especially for the specimen with 14 mm bar size and 14 development length (lb), caused shear failure of test specimens. This situation infers that when bigger bar size and lb are used in such test, dimensions of test specimens should be chosen bigger and stirrups should be used for producing of test specimens to obtain more adequate result by preventing shear failure. Also, a nonlinear regression analysis was employed between HBT and EPT results. There was a high correlation between the EPT values, lb, rebar diameters and estimated theoretical HBT. In addition, at the end of the study an equation was suggested to estimate bond strength for HBT by using EPT results.

Key Words
hinged beam test; eccentric pull-out test; concrete - rebar bond behavior; development length; nonlinear regression analysis

Address
Mehmet E. Arslan: Department of Civil Engineering, Düzce University, 81620, Turkey
Selim Pul: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Turkey


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