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CONTENTS
Volume 20, Number 2, August 2017
 

Abstract
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Key Words
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Address
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Abstract
The modal identification of large civil structures such as bridges under the ambient vibrational conditions has been widely investigated during the past decade. Many operational modal analysis methods have been proposed and successfully used for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the constructed bridges in service. However, there is very limited research available on reliable criteria for the robustness of these identified modal parameters of the bridge structures. In this study, two time-domain operational modal analysis methods, the data-driven stochastic subspace identification (SSI-DATA) method and the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification (SSI-COV) method, are employed to identify the modal parameters from field recorded ambient acceleration data. On the basis of the SSI-DATA method, the modal contribution indexes of all identified modes to the measured acceleration data are computed by using the Kalman filter, and their applicability to evaluate the robustness of identified modes is also investigated. Here, the benchmark problem, developed by Hong Kong Polytechnic University with field acceleration measurements under different excitation conditions of a cable-stayed bridge, is adopted to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results from the benchmark study show that the robustness of identified modes can be judged by using their modal contributions to the measured vibration data. A critical value of modal contribution index of 2% for a reliable identifiability of modal parameters is roughly suggested for the benchmark problem.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridge; operational modal analysis; dynamic characteristics; modal contribution index; ambient vibration response

Address
Tian-Li Huang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, 410075, China;
Department of Engineering Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK
Hua-Peng Chen: Department of Engineering Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK



Abstract
Identification of damping characteristics is of significant importance for dynamic response analysis and condition assessment of structural systems. Damping is associated with the behavior of the energy dissipation mechanism. Identification of damping ratios based on the sensitivity of dynamic responses and the model updating technique is investigated with numerical and experimental investigations. The effectiveness and performance of using the sensitivity-based model updating method and vibration monitoring data for damping ratios identification are investigated. Numerical studies on a three-dimensional truss bridge model are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Measurement noise effect and the initial finite element modelling errors are considered. The results demonstrate that the damping ratio identification with the proposed approach is not sensitive to the noise effect but could be affected significantly by the modelling errors. Experimental studies on a steel planar frame structure are conducted. The robustness and performance of the proposed damping identification approach are investigated with real measured vibration data. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a decent and reliable performance to identify the damping ratios.

Key Words
damping identification; experimental verification; model updating; vibration data; sensitivity

Address
Jun Li: Centre for Infrastructural Monitoring and Protection, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia;
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Engineering Mechanics, Southeast University, Nanjing, China, 210096
Hong Hao and Gao Fan: Centre for Infrastructural Monitoring and Protection, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
Pinghe Ni: Centre for Infrastructural Monitoring and Protection, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia;
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Xiangyu Wang and Changzhi Wu: Australasian Joint Research Centre for Building Information Modelling, School of Built Environment, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Jae-Myung Lee and Kwang-Hyo Jung: Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea





Abstract
The structural strain plays a significant role in structural condition assessment of in-service bridges in terms of structural bearing capacity, structural reliability level and entire safety redundancy. Therefore, it has been one of the most important parameters concerned by researchers and engineers engaged in structural health monitoring (SHM) practices. In this paper, an SHM system instrumented on the Jiubao Bridge located in Hangzhou, China is firstly introduced. This system involves nine subsystems and has been continuously operated for five years since 2012. As part of the SHM system, a total of 166 fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors are installed on the bridge to measure the dynamic strain responses of key structural components. Based on the strain monitoring data acquired in recent two years, the strain-based structural condition assessment of the Jiubao Bridge is carried out. The wavelet multi-resolution algorithm is applied to separate the temperature effect from the raw strain data. The obtained strain data under the normal traffic and wind condition and under the typhoon condition are examined for structural safety evaluation. The structural condition rating of the bridge in accordance with the AASHTO specification for condition evaluation and load and resistance factor rating of highway bridges is performed by use of the processed strain data in combination with finite element analysis. The analysis framework presented in this study can be used as a reference for facilitating the assessment, inspection and maintenance activities of in-service bridges instrumented with long-term SHM system.

Key Words
structural heath monitoring; arch bridge; strain-based structural condition assessment; structural rating; wavelet multi-resolution algorithm; finite element analysis

Address
X.W. Ye, Y.H. Su1b, T. Liu and B. Chen: Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Ting-Hua Yi: School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China

Abstract
In practical engineering, the friction damper is a widely used energy dissipation device because of its large deformation capacity, stable energy dissipation capability, and cost effectiveness. While based on conventional friction dampers, the double-sliding friction damper (DSFD) being proposed is different in that it features two sliding friction forces, i.e., small and large sliding friction forces, rather than a single-sliding friction force of ordinary friction dampers. The DSFD starts to deform when the force sustained exceeds the small-sliding friction force, and stops deforming when the deformation reaches a certain value. If the force sustained exceeds the large sliding friction force, it continues to deform. Such a double-sliding behavior is expected to endow structures equipped with the DSFD better performance in both small and large earthquakes. The configuration and working mechanism of the DSFD is described and analyzed. Quasi-static loading tests and finite element analyses were conducted to investigate its hysteretic behavior. Finally, time history analysis of the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems were performed to investigate the seismic performance of DSFD-equipped structures. For the purpose of comparison, tests on systems equipped with conventional friction dampers were also performed. The proposed DSFD can be realized perfectly, and the DSFD-equipped structures provide better performances than those equipped with conventional friction dampers in terms of interstory drift and floor acceleration. In particular, for the MDOF system, the DSFD helps the structural system to have a uniform distributed interstory drift.

Key Words
friction damper; double-sliding; quasi-static test; finite element modeling; time history analysis

Address
Shaodong Shen, Jiangbo Sun, Runhua Gong, Haishen Wang and Wei Li: Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Peng Pan: Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Safety and Durability of China Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China


Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure using fiber Bragg grating sensor networks (FBGSNs) has received significant public attention in recent years. However, there is currently little research on the health-monitoring technology of high-piled wharfs in coastal ports using the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technique. The benefits of FBG sensors are their small size, light weight, lack of conductivity, resistance corrosion, multiplexing ability and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Based on the properties of high-piled wharfs in coastal ports and servicing seawater environment and the benefits of FBG sensors, the SHM system for a high-piled wharf in the Tianjin Port of China is devised and deployed partly using the FBG sensor technique. In addition, the health-monitoring parameters are proposed. The system can monitor the structural mechanical properties and durability, which provides a state-of-the-art mean to monitor the health conditions of the wharf and display the monitored data with the BIM technique. In total, 289 FBG stain sensors, 87 FBG temperature sensors, 20 FBG obliquity sensors, 16 FBG pressure sensors, 8 FBG acceleration sensors and 4 anode ladders are installed in the components of the back platform and front platform. After the installation of some components in the wharf construction site, the good signal that each sensor measures demonstrates the suitability of the sensor setup methods, and it is proper for the full-scale, continuous, autonomous SHM deployment for the high-piled wharf in the costal port. The South 27# Wharf SHM system constitutes the largest deployment of FBG sensors for wharf structures in costal ports to date. This deployment demonstrates the strong potential of FBGSNs to monitor the health of large-scale coastal wharf structures. This study can provide a reference to the long-term health-monitoring system deployment for high-piled wharf structures in coastal ports.

Key Words
high-piled wharf; structural health monitoring; system design; FBG; durability monitoring

Address
Hong-biao Liu, Qiang Zhang and Bao-hua Zhang: Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering,
National Engineering Laboratory for Port Hydraulic Construction Technology, Tianjin 300456, P.R. China


Abstract
The load-carrying capacity and structural behavior of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) structures is highly influenced by the grouting compactness in the steel tube. Due to the invisibility of the grout in the steel tube, monitoring of the grouting progress in such a structure is still a challenge. This paper develops an active sensing approach with combined piezoceramic-based smart aggregates (SA) and piezoceramic patches to monitor the grouting compactness of CFST bridge structure. A small-scale steel specimen was designed and fabricated to simulate CFST bridge structure in this research. Before casting, four SAs and two piezoceramic patches were installed in the pre-determined locations of the specimen. In the active sensing approach, selected SAs were utilized as actuators to generate designed stress waves, which were detected by other SAs or piezoceramic patch sensors. Since concrete functions as a wave conduit, the stress wave response can be only detected when the wave path between the actuator and the sensor is filled with concrete. For the sake of monitoring the grouting progress, the steel tube specimen was grouted in four stages, and each stage held three days for cement drying. Experimental results show that the received sensor signals in time domain clearly indicate the change of the signal amplitude before and after the wave path is filled with concrete. Further, a wavelet packet-based energy index matrix (WPEIM) was developed to compute signal energy of the received signals. The computed signal energies of the sensors shown in the WPEIM demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method in the monitoring of the grouting progress.

Key Words
grouting compactness monitoring; concrete-filled steel tube arch bridge; piezoceramic-based transducers; smart aggregates; active sensing approach

Address
Qian Feng and Jie Tan: Key Laboratory of Earthquake Geodesy, Institute of Seismology, China Earthquake Administration, Wuhan, 430071, China;
Wuhan Institute of Earthquake Engineering, Wuhan, 430071, China
Qingzhao Kong: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, 77204, USA
Gangbing Song: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, 77204, USA;
School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China




Abstract
In this study, the severity of damage in tendon anchorage caused by the loss of tendon forces is quantitatively identified by using the PZT interface-based impedance monitoring technique. Firstly, a 2-DOF impedance model is newly designed to represent coupled dynamic responses of PZT interface-host structure. Secondly, the 2-DOF impedance model is adopted for the tendon anchorage system. A prototype of PZT interface is designed for the impedance monitoring. Then impedance signatures are experimentally measured from a laboratory-scale tendon anchorage structure with various tendon forces. Finally, damage severities of the tendon anchorage induced by the variation of tendon forces are quantitatively identified from the phase-by-phase model updating process, from which the change in impedance signatures is correlated to the change in structural properties.

Key Words
damage identification; tendon anchorage; PZT interface; impedance monitoring; tendon force; 2-DOF impedance model

Address
Thanh-Canh Huynh and Jeong-Tae Kim: Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University,45 Yongso-ro, Daeyeon 3-dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea


Abstract
The dynamic performance of railway bridges under high-speed trains draws the attention of bridge engineers. The vibration issue for long-span bridges under high-speed trains is still not well understood due to lack of validations through structural health monitoring (SHM) data. This paper investigates the correlation between bridge acceleration and train speed based on structural dynamics theory and SHM system from three foci. Firstly, the calculated formula of acceleration response under a series of moving load is deduced for the situation that train length is near the length of the bridge span, the correlation between train speed and acceleration amplitude is analyzed. Secondly, the correlation scatterplots of the speed–acceleration is presented and discussed based on the transverse and vertical acceleration response data of Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge SHM system. Thirdly, the warning indexes of the bridge performance for correlation scatterplots of speed–acceleration are established. The main conclusions are: (1) The resonance between trains and the bridge is unlikely to happen for long-span bridge, but a multimodal correlation curve between train speed and acceleration amplitude exists after the resonance speed; (2) Based on SHM data, multimodal correlation scatterplots of speed–acceleration exist and they have similar trends with the calculated formula; (3) An envelope line of polylines can be used as early warning indicators of the changes of bridge performance due to the changes of slope of envelope line and peak speed of amplitude. This work also gives several suggestions which lay a foundation for the better design, maintenance and long-term monitoring of a long-span high-speed bridge.

Key Words
high-speed trains; long-span bridge; correlation of speed–acceleration; warning index of bridge performance

Address
D.P. Mei: School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 6177567, China;
China Railway Major Bridge Reconnaissance & Design Institute Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430050, China


Abstract
Because of the inevitable uncertainties such as structural parameters, external excitations and measurement noises, the effects of uncertainties should be taken into consideration in structural damage detection. In this paper, two probabilistic structural damage detection approaches are proposed to account for the underlying uncertainties in structural parameters and external excitation. The first approach adopts the statistical moment-based structural damage detection (SMBDD) algorithm together with the sensitivity analysis of the damage vector to the uncertain parameters. The approach takes the advantage of the strength SMBDD, so it is robust to measurement noise. However, it requests the number of measured responses is not less than that of unknown structural parameters. To reduce the number of measurements requested by the SMBDD algorithm, another probabilistic structural damage detection approach is proposed. It is based on the integration of structural damage detection using temporal moments in each time segment of measured response time history with the sensitivity analysis of the damage vector to the uncertain parameters. In both approaches, probability distribution of damage vector is estimated from those of uncertain parameters based on stochastic finite element model updating and probabilistic propagation. By comparing the two probability distribution characteristics for the undamaged and damaged models, probability of damage existence and damage extent at structural element level can be detected. Some numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performances of the two proposed approaches, respectively.

Key Words
structural damage detection; uncertainty; probabilistic approach; statistical moment

Address
Ying Lei: Department of Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Ning Yang: Department of Instrumental and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Dandan Xia: School of Civil & Architecture Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, China

Abstract
Outlier detection is an imperative task to identify the occurrence of abnormal events before the structures are suffered from sudden failure during their service lives. This paper proposes a two-phase method for the outlier detection of Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring data. Prompt judgment of the occurrence of abnormal data is firstly carried out by use of the relational analysis as the relationship among the data obtained from the adjacent locations following a certain rule. Then, a negative selection algorithm (NSA) is adopted for further accurate localization of the abnormal data. To reduce the computation cost in the NSA, an improved scheme by integrating the adjustable radius into the training stage is designed and implemented. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications demonstrate that the proposed method is encouraging compared with the original method in the aspects of efficiency and reliability. This method is only based on the monitoring data without the requirement of the engineer expertise on the structural operational characteristics, which can be easily embedded in a software system for the continuous and reliable monitoring of civil infrastructure.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; global positioning system; outlier detection; grey relational analysis; negative selection algorithm

Address
Ting-Hua Yi, Hong-Nan Li and Qing Guo: School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
X.W. Ye: Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

Abstract
A recent work by the authors has demonstrated the feasibility of scour evaluation for Kao-Ping-Hsi Cable-Stayed Bridge simply based on ambient vibration measurements. To further attain the goal of scour monitoring, a key challenge comes from the interference of several environmental factors that may also significantly alter the pier frequencies without the change of scour depth. Consequently, this study attempts to investigate the variation in certain modal frequencies of this bridge induced by several environmental factors. Four sets of pier vibration measurements were taken either during the season of plum rains, under regular summer days without rain, or in a period of typhoon. These signals are analyzed with the stochastic subspace identification and empirical mode decomposition techniques. The variations of the identified modal frequencies are then compared with those of the corresponding traffic load, air temperature, and water level. Comparison of the analyzed results elucidates that both the traffic load and the environmental temperature are negatively correlated with the bridge frequencies. However, the traffic load is clearly a more dominant factor to alternate the identified bridge deck frequency than the environmental temperature. The pier modes are also influenced by the passing traffic on the bridge deck, even though with a weaker correlation. In addition, the variation of air temperature follows a similar tendency as that of the passing traffic, but its effect on changing the bridge frequencies is obviously not as significant. As for the effect from the alternation of water level, it is observed that the frequency baselines of the pier modes may positively correlate with the water level during the seasons of plum rains and typhoon.

Key Words
scour monitoring; cable-stayed bridge; pier vibration measurements; stochastic subspace identification; empirical mode decomposition; traffic load; air temperature; water level

Address
Wen-Hwa Wu, Chien-Chou Chen and Wei-Sheng Shi: Department of Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology,No. 123, University Road, Touliu, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
Chun-Ming Huang: Intelligent Electronic Systems Division, National Chip Implementation Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, 7F, No. 26, Prosperity Road 1, Science Park, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan



Abstract
In the field of dynamic measurement and structural damage identification, it is generally known that modal frequencies may be measured with higher accuracy than mode shapes. However, the number of natural frequencies within a measurable range is limited. Accessing additional forms of modal frequencies is thus desirable. The present study is concerned about the extraction of artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies from modal testing. The ABC frequencies correspond to the natural frequencies of the structure with a perturbed boundary condition, but they can be extracted from processing the frequency response functions (FRF) measured in a specific configuration from the structure in its existing state without the need of actually altering the physical support condition. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental investigation into the measurability of the ABC frequencies from physical experiments. It covers the testing procedure through modal testing, the data processing and data analysis requirements, and the FRF matrix operations leading to the extraction of the ABC frequencies. Specific sources of measurement errors and their effects on the accuracy of the extracted ABC frequencies are scrutinised. The extracted ABC frequencies are subsequently applied in the damage identification in beams by means of finite element model updating. Results demonstrate that it is possible to extract the first few ABC frequencies from the modal testing for a variety of artificial boundary conditions incorporating one or two virtual pin supports, and the inclusion of ABC frequencies enables the identification of structural damages without the need to involve the mode shape information.

Key Words
damage identification; finite element model updating; modal testing; frequency response function; antiresonance; artificial boundary condition frequencies

Address
Chuanchuan Hou and Yong Lu: Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, the University of Edinburgh, The King\'s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK
Lei Mao: Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK



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