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CONTENTS
Volume 65, Number 6, March25 2018
 

Abstract
Importance of procuring adequate knowledge about the mechanical behavior of double-layered graphene sheets (DLGSs) incensed the authors to investigate wave propagation responses of mentioned element while rested on a visco-Pasternak medium under hygro-thermal loading. A nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT) is exploited to present a more reliable size-dependent mechanical analysis by capturing both softening and hardening effects of small scale. Furthermore, in the framework of a classical plate theory the kinematic relations are developed. Incorporating kinematic relations with the definition of Hamilton\'s principle, the Euler-Lagrange equations of each of the layers are derived separately. Afterwards, combining Euler-Lagrange equations with those of the NSGT the nonlocal governing equations are written in terms of displacement fields. Interaction of the each of the graphene sheets with another one is regarded by the means of vdW model. Then, a widespread analytical solution is employed to solve the derived equations and obtain wave frequency values. Subsequently, influence of each participant variable containing nonlocal parameter, length scale parameter, foundation parameters, temperature gradient and moisture concentration is studied by plotting various figures.

Key Words
wave propagation; nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT); double-layered graphene sheet (DLGS); visco-Pasternak medium; hygro-thermal environment

Address
Farzad Ebrahimi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Ali Dabbagh: School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Sandwich structures are well known for their use in aircraft, naval and automobile industries due to their high strength resistance with light weight and high energy absorption capability. Sandwich beams with soft core are very common and simple structures that are employed in day to day general use appliances. Modeling and analysis of sandwich structures is not straight forward due to the interactions between core and face sheets. In this paper, formulation of Super Convergent finite elements for analysis of the sandwich beams with soft core based on Euler Bernoulli beam theory are presented. Two elements, Eul4d with 4 degrees of freedom assuming rigid core in transverse direction and Eul10d with 10 degrees of freedom assuming the flexible core were developed are presented. The formulation considers the top, bottom face sheets and core as separate entities and are coupled by beam kinematics. The performance of these elements are validated by results available in the published literature. Number of studies are performed using the formulated elements in static, free vibration and wave propagation analysis involving various boundary and loading conditions. The paper highlights the advantages of the elements developed over the traditional elements for modeling of sandwich beams and, in particular wave propagation analysis.

Key Words
sandwich beams; face sheets; core; governing equations; finite element method; super convergence; static analysis; free vibration; wave propagation; composite or metallic face sheets

Address
S Gopalkrishnan: Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
V Sudhakar and K Vijayaraju: Aeronautical Development Agency, PB No:1718, Vimanapura Post, Bangalore 560017, India

Abstract
In composite materials technology, the fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) have opened up new horizons in infrastructural engineering field for strengthening existing structures and components of structure. The Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets are well suited for RC columns to this application because of their high strength to weight ratio, good fatigue properties and excellent resistance to corrosion. The main focus of present experimental work is to investigate effect of shapes on axial behavior of CFRP wrapped RC columns having same cross-sectional area and slenderness ratio. The CFRP volumetric ratio and percentage of steel are also adopted constant for all the test specimens. A total of 18 RC columns with slenderness ratio four were cast. Nine columns were control and the rest of nine columns were strengthened with one layer of CFRP wrap having 35 mm of corner radius. Columns confined with CFRP wrap were designed using IS: 456:2000 and ACI 440.2R.08 provisions. All the test specimens were loaded for axial compression up to failure and failure pattern for each shaped column was investigated. All the experimental results were compared with analytical values calculated as per the ACI-440.2R-08 code. The test results clearly demonstrated that the axial behavior of CFRP confined RC columns is affected with the change in shapes. The axial deformation is higher in CFRP wrapped RC circular column as compared to square and rectangular columns. Stress-strain behaviour revealed that the yield strength gained from CFRP confinement was significant for circular columns as compare to square and rectangular columns. This behaviour may be credited due to effect of shape on lateral deformation in case of CFRP wrapped circular columns at effective confinement action.

Key Words
CFRP wrapped RC columns; effect of shapes; axial behavior; confinement action; failure pattern

Address
Giridhar N. Narule and Abhay N. Bambole: Department of Structural Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Matunga, Mumbai, India

Abstract
This study focuses on a novel procedure for the robustness assessment of reinforced concrete (RC) framed structures under threat-independent damage scenarios. The procedure is derived from coupled dynamic and non-linear static analyses. Two robustness indicators are defined and the method is applied to two RC frame buildings. The first building was designed for gravity load and earthquake resistance in accordance with Eurocode 8. The second was designed according to the tie force (TF) method, one of the design quantitative procedures for enhancing resistance to progressive collapse. In addition, in order to demonstrate the suitability and applicability of the TF method, the structural robustness and resistance to progressive collapse of the two designs is compared.

Key Words
progressive collapse; structural robustness; pushdown analysis; nonlinear FEM; RC framed structures

Address
Antonio Ventura, Valerio De Biagi and Bernardino Chiaia: Department of Structural, Geotechnical and Building Engineering (DISEG), Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, I-10129 Torino, Italy

Abstract
In the present contribution, fracture resistance of U-notched GPPS members under mixed mode I/III loading conditions is assessed by using the Averaged Strain Energy Density (ASED) criterion. This criterion has been founded based on the ASED parameter averaged over a well-defined control volume embracing the notch edge. The validation of the theoretical criterion predictions is evaluated through comparing with the results of a series of mixed mode I/III fracture tests conducted on rectangular-shaped GPPS specimens weakened by a single edge U-notch. A recently developed apparatus for mixed mode I/III fracture experiments is employed for measuring the fracture loads of the specimens. The test samples are fabricated with different notch tip radii with the aim of evaluating the influence of this major feature of the U-notched components on the mixed mode I/III fracture behavior. It is shown that the onset of brittle fracture in U-notched GPPS specimens under various combinations of tension and out-of-plane shear can well be predicted by means of the ASED criterion.

Key Words
brittle fracture; mixed-mode I/III; U-notch; averaged strain energy density (ASED); notch tip radius

Address
Behnam Saboori: Fatigue and Fracture Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846 Tehran, Iran
A. R. Torabi: Fracture Research Laboratory, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran, Iran
F. Berto and S. M. J. Razavi: Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 2b, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

Abstract
In this article, a new method is introduced to improve the local search capability of meta-heuristic algorithms using the projection of the path on the border of constraints. In a mathematical point of view, the Gradient Projection Method is applied through a new approach, while the imposed limitations are removed. Accordingly, the gradient vector is replaced with a new meta-heuristic based vector. Besides, the active constraint identification algorithm, and the projection method are changed into less complex approaches. As a result, if a constraint is violated by an agent, a new path will be suggested to correct the direction of the agent\'s movement. The presented procedure includes three main steps: (1) the identification of the active constraint, (2) the neighboring point determination, and (3) the new direction and step length. Moreover, this method can be applied to some meta-heuristic algorithms. It increases the chance of convergence in the final phase of the search process, especially when the number of the violations of the constraints increases. The method is applied jointly with the authors\' newly developed meta-heuristic algorithm, entitled Star Graph. The capability of the resulted hybrid method is examined using the optimal design of truss and frame structures. Eventually, the comparison of the results with other meta-heuristics of the literature shows that the hybrid method is successful in the global as well as local search.

Key Words
hybrid optimization; global search; local search; meta-heuristic methods; classic methods

Address
Saeed Asil Gharebaghi and Mohammad Ardalan Asl: Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This paper aims to inspect the effectiveness of the Simple Adaptive Control Method (SACM) to control the response of asymmetric buildings with rotationally non-linear behavior under seismic loads. SACM is a direct control method and was previously used to improve the performance of linear and non-linear structures. In most of these studies, the modeled structures were two-dimensional shear buildings. In reality, the building plans might be asymmetric, which cause the buildings to experience torsional motions under earthquake excitation. In this study, SACM is used to improve the performance of asymmetric buildings, and unlike conventional linear models, the non-linear inertial coupling terms are considered in the equations of motion. SACM performance is compared with the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) algorithm. Moreover, the LQR algorithm is modified, so that it is appropriate for rotationally non-linear buildings. Active tuned mass dampers are used to improve the performance of the modeled buildings. The results show that SACM is successful in reducing the response of asymmetric buildings with rotationally non-linear behavior under earthquake excitation. Furthermore, the results of the SACM were very close to those of the LQR algorithm.

Key Words
rotational non-linearity; simple adaptive control method; active tuned mass damper; linear quadratic regulator; asymmetric buildings

Address
Fereidoun Amini and Hassan Rezazadeh: School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-163, Tehran, Iran
Majid Amin Afshar: Department of Technology and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University Norouzian, P.O. Box 34149-16818, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents an optimal pattern for distributing stiffness along a framed tube structure through an analytic equation, which may be used during the preliminary design stage. Most studies in this field are computationally intensive and time consuming, while a hand-calculation method, as presented here, is a more suitable tool for sensitivity analyses and parametric studies. Approach in development of the analytic model is to minimize the mean compliance (external work) for a given volume of material. A variational statement of the problem is made, and a specified deformation-profile is obtained as the necessary condition for a minimum; enforcing this condition, stiffness is then computed. Due to some near-zero values for stiffness, the problem is modified by considering a lower bound constraint. To deal with this constraint, the design domain is assumed to be divided into two zones of constant stiffness and constant curvature; and the problem is restated in terms of these concepts. It will be shown that this methodology allows for easy computation of stiffness through an analytic and dimensionless equation, valid in any system of units. To show practicality of the proposed method, a tubed-system structure with uniform stiffness distribution is redesigned using the proposed model. Comparative analyses of the results reveal that in addition to simplicity of the proposed method, it provides a rather high degree of accuracy for real-world problems.

Key Words
high-rise building; framed tube; compliance; optimal stiffness

Address
Arsalan Alavi and Reza Rahgozar: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical responses of a high-speed railway shield tunnel subjected to impact by a derailed train, with emphasis on the protective effect of the secondary lining. To do so, the extended finite element method was used to develop two numerical models of a shield tunnel including joints and joint bolts, one with a cast-in-situ concrete secondary lining and one without such a lining. The dynamic responses of these models upon impact were analyzed, with particular focus on the distribution and propagation of cracks in the lining structures and the mechanical responses of the joint bolts. The numerical results showed that placing a secondary lining significantly constricted the development of cracking in the segmental lining upon the impact load caused by a derailed train, reduced the internal forces on the joint bolts, and enhanced the safety of the segmental lining structure. The outcomes of this study can provide a numerical reference for optimizing the design of shield tunnels under accidental impact loading conditions.

Key Words
train impact load; assembled-segmental lining; fracture mechanics; crack characteristics of lining concrete; dynamic responses

Address
Qixiang Yan, Binjia Li and Zhixin Deng: Key Laboratory of Transportation Tunnel Engineering, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610031, China
Bin Li: The Third Railway Survey and Design Institute Group Corporation, Tianjin, 300000, China

Abstract
Damages in concrete structures due to aging and other factors could be a serious and immense matter. Making the best selection of the most viable and practical repairing and strengthening techniques are relatively difficult tasks using traditional methods of structural analyses. This is due to the fact that the traditional methods used for assessing aging structure are not fully capable when considering the randomness in strength, loads and cost. This paper presents a reliability-based methodology for assessing reinforced concrete members. The methodology of this study is based on probabilistic analysis, using statistics of the random variables in the performance function equations. Principles of reliability updating are used in the assessment process, as new information is taken into account and combined with prior probabilistic models. The methodology can result in a reliability index B that can be used to assess the structural component by comparing its value with a standard value. In addition, these methods result in partial safety factor values that can be used for the purpose of strengthening the R/C elements of the existing structure. Calculations and computations of the reliability indices and the partial safety factors values are conducted using the First-order Reliability Method and Monte Carlo simulation.

Key Words
structural reliability; first order reliability method; Monte Carlo simulation; reinforced concrete structures; existing reinforced concrete structures; partial safety factors

Address
Zafer I. Sakka, Ibrahim A. Assakkaf and Jamal S. Qazweeni: Energy and Building Research Center, KISR, P.O. Box 24885 Safat 13109, Kuwait

Abstract
In this work, an optimization method of Friction Tuned Mass Damper (FTMD) parameters is presented. Friction tuned mass dampers (FTMD) are attached to mechanical structures to reduce their vibrations with dissipating the vibratory energy through friction between both bodies. In order to exploit the performances of FTMD, the determination of the optimum parameters is recommended. However, the presence of Coulomb\'s friction force requires the resolution of a non-linear stick-slip problem. First, this work aims at determining the responses of the vibratory system. The responses of the main mass and of the FTMD are determined analytically in the sticking and sliding phase using the equivalent damping method. Second, this work aims to optimize the FTMD parameters; the friction coefficient and the tuned frequency. The optimization formulation based on the Ricciardelli and Vickery method at the resonance frequencies, this method is reformulated for a system with a viscous damping. The inverse problem of finding the FTMD parameters given the magnitude of the force and the maximum acceptable displacement of the primary system is also considered; the optimization of parameters leads to conclude on the favorable FTMD giving significant vibration decrease, and to advance design recommendations.

Key Words
tuned mass damper; coulomb friction; optimization parameters; vibration reduction

Address
Aymen Nasr, Charfeddine Mrad and Rachid Nasri: Laboratory of Applied Mechanics and Engineering (LMAI), National School of Engineers of Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El Manar (UTM), BP 37, Le Belvedere, 1002, Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract
This study aims to investigate the stochastic response of isolated and non-isolated highway bridges subjected to spatially varying earthquake ground motion model. This model includes wave passage, incoherence and site response effects. The wave passage effect is examined by using various wave velocities. The incoherency effect is investigated by considering the Harichandran and Vanmarcke coherency model. The site response effect is considered by selecting homogeneous firm, medium and soft soil types where the bridge supports are constructed. The ground motion is described by power spectral density function and applied to each support point. Triple concave friction pendulum (TCFP) bearing which is more effective than other seismic isolation systems is used for seismic isolation. To implement seismic isolation procedure, TCFP bearing devices are placed at each of the support points of the deck. In the analysis, the bridge selected is a five-span featuring cast-in-place concrete box girder superstructure supported on reinforced concrete columns. Foundation supported highway bridge is regarded as three regions and compared its different situation in the stochastic analysis. The stochastic analyses results show that spatially varying ground motion has important effects on the stochastic response of the isolated and non-isolated bridges as long span structures.

Key Words
triple concave friction pendulum bearing; spatially varying earthquake ground motion; stochastic analysis; isolated bridge

Address
Muhammet Yurdakul: Department of Civil Engineering, Bayburt University, 69000, Bayburt, Turkey
Sevket Ates: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey


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