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CONTENTS
Volume 64, Number 1, October10 2017
 

Abstract
The present paper deals with the free vibration and buckling problem with consideration of surface properties of circular nanobeams and nanoarches. The Gurtin-Murdach theory is used for investigating the surface effects parameters including surface tension, surface density and surface elasticity. Both linear and nonlinear elastic foundation effect are considered on the circular curved nanobeam. The analytically Navier solution is employed to solve the governing equations. It is obviously detected that the natural frequencies of a curved nanobeams is substantially influenced by the elastic foundations. Besides, it is revealed that by increasing the thickness of curved nanobeam, the influence of surface properties and elastic foundations reduce to vanished, and the natural frequency and critical buckling load turns into to the corresponding classical values.

Key Words
vibration; critical buckling load; elastic foundation; circular curved nanobeam

Address
Farzad Ebrahimi, Mohsen Daman: Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, P.O.B. 16818-34149, Iran
Ramin Ebrahimi Fardshad: Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract
It has been observed in the past that, the reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns are very often subjected to torsional moment in addition to flexure and shear during seismic vibration. Ignoring torsion in the design can trigger unexpected shear failure of the columns (Farhey et al. 1993). Performance based seismic design is a popular design philosophy which calls for accurate prediction of the hysteresis behavior of structural elements to ensure safe and economical design under earthquake loading. However, very few investigations in the past focused on the development of analytical models to accurately predict the response of RC members under cyclic torsion. Previously developed hysteresis models are not readily applicable for torsional loading owing to significant pinching and stiffness degradation associated with torsion (Wang et al. 2014). The present study proposes an improved polygonal hysteresis model which can accurately predict the hysteretic behavior of RC circular and square columns under torsion. The primary curve is obtained from mechanics based softened truss model for torsion. The proposed model is validated with test data of two circular and two square columns. A good correlation is observed between the predicted and measured torque-twist behavior and dissipated energy.

Key Words
polygonal hysteresis model; RC column; torsion; primary curve; unloading and reloading rules

Address
Tarutal Ghosh Mondal: School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, United States
Sriharsha R. Kothamuthyala, S. Suriya Prakash: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India

Abstract
In the study, dynamic behavior of laminated orthotropic beams on elastic foundation is investigated. Consistent model presented here combines the finite element solution of the system with SAP2000 software and the calculation of soil parameters with MATLAB software using Modified Vlasov Model type elastic foundation. For this purpose, a computing tool is coded in MATLAB which employs Open Application Programming Interface (OAPI) feature of SAP2000 to provide two-way data flow during execution. Firstly, an example is taken from the literature to demonstrate the accuracy of the consistent FEMVlasov Model. Subsequently, the effects of boundary conditions, subsoil depth, elasticity modulus of subsoil, slenderness ratio, velocity of moving load and lamination scheme on the behavior of laminated orthotropic beams on elastic foundation are investigated on a new numerical example. It can be concluded that it is really convenient to use OAPI feature of SAP2000 to model this complex behavior of laminated orthotropic beams on elastic foundation under moving load.

Key Words
moving load; elastic foundation; laminated orthotropic beam; OAPI

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz technical University, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
In this paper, the dynamic responses of train-bridge system under one-way and two-way high-speed train passing are studied. The 3D finite element modeling is used and the bridge and train are modeled considering their details. The created model is validated by the results of the dynamic field test. To study the effect of train speed, different train passing scenarios are analyzed, including one-way passing, two-way passing in different directions at same speeds, and two-way passing in different directions at different speeds. The results show that the locations of maximum acceleration are different in one-way and two-way passing modes, and the maximum values in two-way passing mode are higher than those in one-way passing mode, while the maximum accelerations in both modes are almost identical. The displacement and acceleration values in different scenarios show peaks at speeds of 260 and 120 km/h, due to the proximity of the natural frequencies of the bridge and loading frequencies of the train at these speeds.

Key Words
dynamic interaction; high-speed train; 3D finite element modeling; two-way passing; dynamic field test

Address
Meysam Jahangiri and Jabar-Ali Zakeri: School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents the application of topology optimization as a design tool for a steel railway bridge. The choice of a steel railway bridge is dictated by the particular situation that it is suitable for topology optimization design. On the one hand, the current manufacturing techniques for steel structures (additive manufacturing techniques not included) are highly appropriate for material optimization and weight reduction to improve the overall structural efficiency, improve production efficiency, and reduce costs. On the other hand, the design of a railway bridge, especially at higher speeds, is dominated by minimizing the deformations, this being the basic principle of compliance optimization. However, a classical strategy of topology optimization considers typically only one or a very limited number of load cases, while the design of a steel railway bridge is characterized by relatively concentrated convoy loads, which may be present or absent at any location of the structure. The paper demonstrates the applicability of considering multiple load configurations during topology optimization and proves that a different and better optimal layout is obtained than the one from the classical strategy.

Key Words
topology optimization; SIMP; steel railway bridge; multiple load cases

Address
Arne Jansseune and Wouter De Corte: Department of Structural Engineering, Research group Schoonmeersen, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University,
Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

Abstract
The field of fracture mechanics has gained significance because of its ability to address the behaviour of cracks. Predicting the fracture properties of concrete based on experimental investigations is a challenge considering the quasi-brittle nature of concrete. So, there is a need for developing a standard numerical tool which predicts the fracture energy of concrete which is at par with experimental results. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the fracture energy and characteristic length for different grades of concrete using Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) model. Indian Standard and EUROCODE are used for the basic input parameters of concrete. Numerical evaluation is done using Finite Element Analysis Software ABAQUS/CAE. Hsu & Hsu and Saenz stress-strain models are adopted for the current study. Mesh sensitivity analysis is also carried to study the influence of type and size of elements on the overall accuracy of the solution. Different input parameters like dilatation angle, eccentricity are varied and their effect on fracture properties is addressed. The results indicated that the fracture properties of concrete for various grades can be accurately predicted without laboratory tests using CDP model.

Key Words
concrete damaged plasticity model; fracture mechanics of concrete; stress-strain relations; ABAQUS/CAE; numerical modelling

Address
J.S. Kalyana Rama, D.R. Chauhan: Department of Civil Engineering, BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India
M.V.N Sivakumar: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India
A. Vasan and A. Ramachandra Murthy: CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai, India

Abstract
In this study, interaction of several interface cracks located between a functionally graded material (FGM) layer and an elastic layer under anti-plane deformation based on the distributed dislocation technique (DDT) is analyzed. The variation of the shear modulus of the functionally graded coating is modeled by an exponential and linear function along the thickness of the layer. The complex Fourier transform is applied to governing equation to derive a system of singular integral equations with Cauchy type kernel. These equations are solved by a numerical method to obtain the stress intensity factors (SIFs) at the crack tips. The effects of non-homogeneity parameters for exponentially and linearly form of shear modulus, the thickness of the layers and the length of crack on the SIFs for several interface cracks are investigated. The results reveal that the magnitude of SIFs decrease with increasing of FG parameter and thickness of FGM layer. The values of SIFs for FGM layer with exponential form is less than the linear form.

Key Words
FGM coating; distributed dislocation technique; multiple interface cracks; stress intensity factors; singular integrals equations

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hashtgerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 33615-178, Alborz, Iran

Abstract
Many materials in engineering exhibit different modulus in tension and compression, which are known as bimodulus materials. Based on the bi-modulus elastic theory, a modified semi-analytical model, by introducing a stress function, is established in this paper to study the mechanical response of a bi-modulus cylinder placed in an axisymmetric temperature field. Meanwhile, a numerical procedure to calculate the temperature stresses in bi-modulus structures is developed. It is proved that the bi-modulus solution can be degenerated to the classical same modulus solution, and is in great accordance with the solutions calculated by the semi-analytical model proposed by Kamiya (1977) and the numerical solutions calculated both by the procedure complied in this paper and by the finite element software ABAQUS, which demonstrates that the semi-analytical model and the numerical procedure are accurate and reliable. The result shows that the modified semi-analytical model simplifies the calculation process and improves the speed of computation. And the numerical procedure simplifies the modeling process and can be extended to study the stress field of bi-modulus structures with complex geometry and boundary conditions. Besides, the necessity to introduce the bi-modulus theory is discussed and some suggestions for the qualitative analysis and the quantitative calculation of such structure are proposed.

Key Words
bi-modulus thick cylinder; axisymmetric temperature field; stress function; semi-analytical solution; numerical procedure

Address
Jinling Gao: School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Peikui Huang: College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Wenjuan Yao: Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China

Abstract
The article presents the vibration and acoustic responses of un-baffled doubly curved laminated composite panel structure under the excitation of a harmonic point load. The structural responses are obtained using a simulation model via ANSYS including the effect various geometries (cylindrical, elliptical, spherical and hyperboloid). Initially, the model has been established by solving adequate number of available examples to show the convergence and comparison behaviour of the natural frequencies. Further, the acoustic responses are obtained using an indirect boundary element approach for the coupled fluidstructure analysis in LMS Virtual.lab by importing the natural frequency values. Subsequently, the values for the sound power level are computed using the present numerical model and compared with that of the available published results and in-house experimentally obtained data. Further, the acoustic responses (mean-square velocity, radiation efficiency and sound power level) of the doubly curved layered structures are evaluated using the current simulation model via several numerical experimentations for different structural parameters and corresponding discussions are provided in detail.

Key Words
composite doubly curved panels; acoustic radiation; indirect boundary element method; sound pressure level; radiated sound power; experimental analysis

Address
Nitin Sharma, Trupti R. Mahapatra: School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha, India
Subrata K. Panda: Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Rourkela, 769008, Odisha, India

Abstract
The behavior of moment resistant steel structures depends on both the beam-column connections and columns foundations connections. Obviously, if the connections can meet the adequate ductility and resistance against lateral loads, the seismic capacity of these structures will be linked practically to the performance of these connections. The shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been most recently used as a means of energy dissipation in buildings. The main approach adopted by researchers in the use of such alloys is firstly bracing, and secondly connecting the beams to columns. Additionally, the behavior of these alloys is modeled in software applications rarely involving equivalent torsional springs and column-foundation connections. This paper attempts to introduce the shape memory alloys and their applications in steel structural connections, proposing a new steel column- foundation connection, not merely a theoretical model but practically a realistic and applicable model in structures. Moreover, it entails the same functionality as macro modeling software based on real behavior, which can use different materials to establish a connection between the columns and foundations. In this paper, the suggested steel column-foundation connection was introduced. Moreover, exploring the seismic dynamic behavior under cyclic loading protocols and the famous earthquake records with different materials such as steel and interconnection equipment by superelastic shape memory alloys have been investigated. Then, the results were compared to demonstrate that such connections are ideal against the seismic behavior and energy dissipation.

Key Words
SMA; steel column-base-connection; cyclic/seismic behavior; energy dissipation

Address
Reza Jamalpour, Masoud Nekooei: Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abdolreza Sarvghad Moghadam: International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This paper proposes an analytical solution method for free vibration of curved functionally graded (FG) nonlocal beam supposed to different thermal loadings, by considering porosity distribution via nonlocal elasticity theory for the first time. Material properties of curved FG beam are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Thermo-mechanical properties of porous FG curved beam are supposed to vary through the thickness direction of beam and are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Since variation of pores along the thickness direction influences the mechanical and physical properties, porosity play a key role in the mechanical response of curved FG structures. The rule of power-law is modified to consider influence of porosity according to even distribution. The governing equations of curved FG porous nanobeam under temperature field are derived via the energy method based on Timoshenko beam theory. An analytical Navier solution procedure is used to achieve the natural frequencies of porous FG curved nanobeam supposed to thermal loadings with simply supported boundary condition. The results for simpler states are confirmed with known data in the literature. The effects of various parameters such as nonlocality, porosity volume fractions, type of temperature rising, gradient index, opening angle and aspect ratio of curved FG porous nanobeam on the natural frequency are successfully discussed. It is concluded that these parameters play key roles on the dynamic behavior of porous FG curved nanobeam. Presented numerical results can serve as benchmarks for future analyses of curve FG nanobeam with porosity phases.

Key Words
curved FG beam; porous materials; thermo-mechanical vibration; thermal loadings; timoshenko beam theory

Address
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, P.O.B. 16818-34149, Iran

Abstract
To upgrade shear performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams, and particularly of the segments under negative moment within continuous T-section beams, a series of original schemes has been proposed using carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) U-shaped strips for shear-strengthening. The current work focuses on one of them, in which CFRP U-strips are wound around steel bars against the top of the flange of a T-beam and then spliced on its bottom face in addition to being bonded onto its sides. The test results showed that the proposed scheme successfully provided reliable anchorage for U-strips and prevented premature onset of shear failure due to FRP debonding. The governing shear mode of failure changed from peeling of CFRP to its fracture or crushing of concrete. The strengthened specimens displayed an average increase of about 60% in shear capacity over the unstrengthened control one. The specimen with a relatively high ratio and uniform distribution of CFRP reinforcement had a maximum increase of nearly 75% in strength as well as significantly improved ductility. The formulas by various codes or guidelines exhibited different accuracy in estimating FRP contribution to shear resistance of the segments that are subjected to negative moment and strengthened with well-anchored FRP U-strips within continuous T-beams. Further investigation is necessary to find a suitable approach to predicting load-carrying capacity of continuous beams shear strengthened in this way.

Key Words
beams; reinforced concrete; FRP; shear; strengthening; anchorage

Address
Chaoyang Zhou and Xiaonian Cheng: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, 68 Shaoshannan Road, P.R. China
Da Ren: School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University,230 Waihuanxi Road, P.R. China


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