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CONTENTS
Volume 26, Number 3, February10 2018
 

Abstract
A steel-concrete composite (SC) panel typically consists of two steel faceplates and a plain concrete core. This paper investigated the impact response of SC panels through drop hammer tests and numerical simulations. The influence of the drop height, faceplate thickness, and axial compressive preload was studied. Experimental results showed that the deformation of SC panels under impact consists of local indentation and overall bending. The resistance of the panel significantly decreased after the local failure occurred. A three-dimensional finite element model was established to simulate the response of SC panels under low-velocity impact, in which the axial preload could be considered reasonably. The predicted displacements and impact force were in good agreement with the experimental results. Based on the validated model, a parametric study was conducted to further discuss the effect of the axial compressive preload.

Key Words
steel-concrete composite panel; low-velocity impact; axial preload; dynamic response; numerical simulation

Address
School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Abstract
A detailed study was carried out on the tensile properties of the single-lap joint of a steel panel bolted/bonded to a composite laminate with a flanging. Finite element model (FEM) was established to predict the strength and to analyze the damage propagation of the hybrid joints by ABAQUS/Standard, which especially adopted cohesive elements to simulate the interface between the laminate and adhesive. The strength and failure mode predicted by FEM were in good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, three influence factors including adhesive thickness, bolt preload and bolt-hole clearance were studied. The results show that the three parameters have effect on the first drop load of the load-displacement curve, but the effect of bolt-hole clearance is the largest. The bolt-hole clearance should be avoided for hybrid joints.

Key Words
composite structures; hybrid structure; failure mode; damage; finite element method

Address
(1) Xiaoquan Cheng, Jie Zhang, Jikui Zhang, Peng Liu, Yujia Cheng:
School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China;
(2) Yahong Xu:
Institute 306 of the 3rd Academy of CASIC, Beijing, 100074, China.

Abstract
Buckling and free vibration analysis of sandwich micro plate (SMP) integrated with piezoelectric layers embedded in orthotropic Pasternak are investigated in this paper. The refined Zigzag theory (RZT) is taken into consideration to model the SMP. Four different types of functionally graded (FG) distribution through the thickness of the SMP core layer which is reinforced with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are considered. The modified couple stress theory (MCST) is employed to capture the effects of small scale effects. The sandwich structure is exposed to a two dimensional magnetic field and also, piezoelectric layers are subjected to external applied voltages. In order to obtain governing equation, energy method as well as Hamilton's principle is applied. Based on an analytical solution the critical buckling loads and natural frequency are obtained. The effects of volume fraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), different distributions of CNTs, foundation stiffness parameters, magnetic and electric fields, small scale parameter and the thickness of piezoelectric layers on the both critical buckling loads and natural frequency of the SMP are examined. The obtained results demonstrate that the effects of volume fraction of CNTs play an important role in analyzing buckling and free vibration behavior of the SMP. Furthermore, the effects of magnetic and electric fields are remarkable on the mechanical responses of the system and cannot be neglected.

Key Words
buckling; free vibration; sandwich structure; RZT; MCST; Refined Zigzag Theory

Address
(1) Farzad Kolahdouzan, Ali Ghorbanpour Arani, Mohammad Abdollahian:
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of kashan, Kashan, Iran;
(2) Ali Ghorbanpour Arani:
Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

Abstract
The rigid steel connections were suffered severe damage because of low rotational capacity during earthquakes. Hence, many investigations have been conducted on the connections of steel structures. As a solution, steel slit dampers were employed at the connections to prevent brittle failure of connections and damage of main structural members. Slit damper is a plate or a standard section with a number of slits in the web. The objective of this paper is to improve the seismic performance of steel slit dampers in the beam-to-column connection using finite element modeling. With reviewing the previous investigations, it is observed that slit dampers were commonly fractured in the end parts of the struts. This may be due to the low participation of struts middle parts in the energy dissipation. Thus, in the present study slit damper with elliptic slits is proposed in such a way that end parts of struts have more energy absorption area than struts middle parts. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of geometric parameters of elliptic slit damper such as strut width, strut height and plate thickness on the seismic performance of the beam-to-column connection. The stress distribution is improved along the struts in the proposed slit damper with elliptic slits and the stress concentration is decreased in the end parts of struts. The average contributions of elliptic slit dampers, beam and other sections to the energy dissipation are about 97.19%, 2.12% and 0.69%, respectively.

Key Words
seismic performance; beam-to-column connections; elliptic slit dampers; geometric parameters

Address
Civil Engineering Department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Daneshgah Street, Zahedan 98155-987, Iran.


Abstract
Drying shrinkage in concrete caused by drying and the associated decrease in moisture content is one of the most important factors influencing the long-term deflection of steel-concrete composite slabs. The presence of profiled steel decking at the bottom of the composite slab causes non-uniform drying from top and bottom of the slab resulting non-uniform drying shrinkage. In this paper, a hydro-mechanical analysis method is proposed to simulate the development of non-uniform shrinkage through the depth of the composite slab. It also demonstrates how this proposed analysis method can be used in conjunction with previously presented structural analysis model to calculate the effects of non-uniform shrinkage on the long-term deflection of the slab. The method uses concrete moisture diffusion model to simulate the non-uniform drying of composite slab. Then mechanical models are used to calculate resulting shrinkage strain from non-uniform drying and its effect on the long-term behaviour of the composite slabs. The performance of the proposed analysis method is validated against experimental data.

Key Words
hydro-mechanical analysis; composite; concrete; shrinkage; slabs; steel

Address
School of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of New SouthWales, Canberra, Australia.


Abstract
Built-up Double-I (BD-I) columns consist of two hot rolled IPE sections and two cover plates which are welded by fillet welds. In Iran, this type of column is commonly used in braced frames with simple connections and sometimes in low-rise Moment Resisting Frames (MRF) with Welded Flange Plate (WFP) beam-column detailing. To evaluate the seismic performance of WFP connection of I-beam to BD-I column, traditional and modified exterior MRF connections were tested subjected to cyclic prescribed loading of AISC. Test results indicate that the traditional connection does not achieve the intended behavior while the modified connection can moderately meet the requirements of MRF connection. The numerical models of the connections were developed in ABAQUS finite element software and validated with the test results. For this purpose, moment-rotation curves and failure modes of the tested connections were compared with the simulation results. Moreover to avoid improper failure modes, some improvements of the connections were evaluated through a numerical study.

Key Words
built-up double-I column; cyclic test; finite element; seismic behavior; steel moment resisting frame

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, P.O. Box 71555-313, Modarres Blvd., Shiraz, Iran.


Abstract
This paper systematically investigated the mechanical performance of the weak-axis cover-plate connection, including a beam end monotonic loading test and a column top cyclic loading test, and a series of parametric studies for exterior and interior joints under cyclic loading using a nonlinear finite element analysis program ABAQUS, focusing on the influences of the shape of top cover-plate, the length and thickness of the cover-plate, the thickness of the skin plate, and the steel material grade. Results showed that the strains at both edges of the beam flange were greater than the middle's, thus it is necessary to take some technical methods to ensure the construction quality of the beam flange groove weld. The plastic rotation of the exterior joint can satisfy the requirement of FEMA-267 (1995) of 0.03 rad, while only one side connection of interior joint satisfied ANSI/AISC 341-10 under the column top cyclic loading. Changing the shape or the thickness or the length of the cover-plate did not significantly affect the mechanical behaviors of frame joints no matter in exterior joints or interior joints. The length and thickness of the cover-plate recommended by FEMA 267 (1995) is also suitable to the weak-axis cover-plate joint. The minimum skin plate thickness and a design procedure for the weak-axis cover-plate connections were proposed finally.

Key Words
steel frame; weak-axis connection; bending connection; panel zone; I-section column; H-shaped beam

Address
(1) Linfeng Lu, Yinglu Xu, Huixiao Zheng:
School of civil engineering, Chang'an University, 75 Chang'an Middle Rd, Xi'an, P.R. China;
(2) James B.P. Lim:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland (City Campus), Engineering Building, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland, New Zealand.

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the available bond.slip laws which are being used for the numerical modeling of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)/concrete interfaces. For this purpose, a set of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams retrofitted with external FRP were modeled using the 3D nonlinear Finite Element (FE) approach. All considered RC beams have been previously tested and the corresponding experimental data are available in the literature. The failure modes of these beams are concrete crushing, steel yielding and FRP debonding. Through comparison of the numerical and experimental results, the effectiveness of each FRP/concrete bond.slip model for the prediction of the structural behavior of externally retrofitted RC beams is assessed. The sensitivity of the numerical results against different modeling considerations of the concrete constitutive behavior and bond-slip laws has also been evaluated. The results show that the maximum allowable stress of FRP/concrete interface has an important role in the accurate prediction of the FRP debonding failure.

Key Words
debonding; FRP; bond-slip law; finite element; RC beam

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487-397, Iran.


Abstract
This paper presents the development of finite element (FE) models to simulate the behavior of diagonally stiffened steel plate shear wall systems (SPSWs) with differently shaped openings subjected to a cyclic load. This walling system has the potential to be used for shear elements that resist lateral loads in steel-framed buildings. A number of ½-scale one-story buildings that were un-stiffened, stiffened and stiffened with opening SPSWs are modeled and simulated using the finite element method based on experimental data from previous research. After validating the finite element (FE) models, the effects of infill plate thickness on the cyclic behavior of steel shear walls are investigated. Furthermore, triple diagonal stiffeners are added to the steel infill plates of the SPSWs, and the effects are studied. Moreover, the effects of a number of differently shaped openings applied to the infill plate are studied. The results indicate that the bearing capacity and shear resistance are affected positively by increasing the infill plate thickness and by adding triple diagonal stiffeners. In addition, the cyclic behavior of SPSWs is improved, even with an opening in the SPSWs.

Key Words
steel plate shear wall systems (SPSWs); FE simulation; cyclic behavior; diagonal stiffeners; openings

Address
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.


Abstract
Existing design codes for steel-concrete composite structures give only general information about the shear connection provided by headed studs in group arrangement. Grouting of the openings in prefabricated concrete slabs, where the grouped headed studs are placed in the deck pockets is alternative to cast-in-place decks to accomplish fast execution of composite structures. This paper considers the possibility to reduce the distance between the studs within the group, bellow the Eurocode limitations. This may lead to increased competitiveness of the prefabricated construction because more studs are placed in the group if negative effectives of smaller distances between studs are limited. The main purpose of this work is to investigate these limits and propose an analytical calculation model for prediction of the shear resistance of grouped stud arrangements in the deck pockets. An advanced FEA model, validated by results of push-out experiments, is used to analyze the shear behavior of the grouped stud with smaller distance between them than recommended by EN 1994-1. Calculation model for shear resistance, which is consistent with the existing Eurocode rules, is proposed based on a newly introduced equivalent diameter of the stud group, dG. The new calculation model is validated by comparison to the results of FE parametric study. The distance between the studs in the longitudinal direction and the number of stud rows and columns in the group are considered as the main variables.

Key Words
group of headed studs; equivalent diameter; shear connection; finite element method

Address
(1) Milan Spremic, Zlatko Markovic, Dragan Budjevac:
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73,11000 Belgrade, Serbia;
(2) Marko Pavlovic, Milan Veljkovic:
Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Stevinweg 1,2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands.


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