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CONTENTS
Volume 23, Number 6, April30 2017
 

Abstract
Present paper deals with the temperature-dependent buckling analysis of sandwich nanocomposite plates resting on elastic medium subjected to magnetic field. The lamina layers are reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as uniform and functionally graded (FG). The elastic medium is considered as orthotropic Pasternak foundation with considering the effects of thermal loading on the spring and shear constants of medium. Mixture rule is utilized for obtaining the effective material properties of each layer. Adopting the Reddy shear deformation plate theory, the governing equations are derived based on energy method and Hamilton's principle. The buckling load of the structure is calculated with the Navier's method for the simply supported sandwich nanocomposite plates. Parametric study is conducted on the combined effects of the volume percent and distribution types of the CNTs, temperature change, elastic medium, magnetic field and geometrical parameters of the plates on the buckling load of the sandwich structure. The results show that FGX distribution of the CNTs leads to higher stiffness and consequently higher buckling load. In addition, considering the magnetic field increases the buckling load of the sandwich nanocomposite plate.

Key Words
buckling of sandwich nanocomposite plates; magnetic field; FG-CNT; temperature-dependent; Reddy shear deformation plate theory

Address
Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Qazvin, Iran.

Abstract
The compressive behavior of special-shaped concrete filled tube (CFT) mega column coupled with multiple cavitiesis studied by testing six columns subjected to cyclically uniaxial compressive load. The six columns include three pentagonal specimens and three hexagonal specimens. The influence of cavity construction, arrangement of reinforcement, concrete strength on failure feature, bearing capacity, stiffness, and residual deformation is examined. Experimental results show that cavity construction and reinforcements make it possible to form a combined confinement effect to in-filled concrete, and the two groups of special-shaped CFT columns show good elastic-plastic compressive behavior. As there is no axial bearing capacity calculation method currently available in any Code of practice for special-shaped CFT columns, values predicted by normal CFT column formulas in GB50936, CECS254, ACI-318, EC4, AISCI-LRFD, CECS159, and AIJ are compared with tested values. The calculated values are lower than the tested values for most columns, thus the predicted bearing capacity is safe. A reasonable calculation method by dividing concrete into active and inactive confined regions is proposed. And high accuracy shows in estimating special-shaped CFT columns either coupled with multiple cavities or not. In addition, a finite element method (FEM) analysis is conducted and the simulated results match the test well.

Key Words
CFT; mega column; pentagonal; hexagonal; compressive behavior; bearing capacity; FEM analysis

Address
College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.

Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the behaviour of steel beams with different types of web openings. Steel beams with web openings became progressively more accepted as a well-organized structural form in steel construction since their existence. Their complicated design and profiling method provides better flexibility in beam proportioning for strength, depth, size and location of holes. The objective of this study is to carry out the experiments on steel beams with different types of web openings and performed non-linear finite element (FE) analysis of the beams that were considered in the experimental study in order to determine their ultimate load capacity and failure modes for comparison. Ten full scale models of steel beam with web openings have been tested in the experimental investigation. The finite element method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify test results and to investigate the nonlinear behaviour of failure modes such as local buckling, lateral torsional buckling, web-post buckling, shear buckling and Vierendeel bending of beams.

Key Words
experimental study; steel beams with web openings; non-linear finite element analysis; failure modes; web post buckling

Address
Department of Applied Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440 010, India.

Abstract
In the most of previous studies, researchers have restricted their own studies to consider the effect of single walled carbon nanotubes as a reinforcement on the vibrational behavior of structures. In the present work, free vibration characteristics of functionally graded annular plates reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes resting on Pasternak foundation are presented. The response of the elastic medium is formulated by the Winkler/Pasternak model. Modified Halpin-Tsai equation was used to evaluate the Young's modulus of the multi-walled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite samples by the incorporation of an orientation as well as an exponential shape factor in the equation. The exponential shape factor modifies the Halpin-Tsai equation from expressing a straight line to a nonlinear one in the multi-walled carbon nanotubes wt% range considered. The 2-D generalized differential quadrature method as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is used to discretize the equations of motion and to implement the various boundary conditions. The effects of two-parameter elastic foundation modulus, geometrical and material parameters together with the boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the plates are investigated. This study serves as a benchmark for assessing the validity of numerical methods or two-dimensional theories used to analysis of annular plates.

Key Words
multi-walled carbon nanotubes; vibration; thick plates; modified Halpin-Tsai equation

Address
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran.

Abstract
The use of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) in composite columns offers numerous structural benefits, and has received recent research attention. However, the information regarding the behavior of steel tube confined concrete (STCC) columns employing UHPC has been extremely limited. Thus, this paper presents an overview of previous experimental studies on circular STCC columns with taking into account various concrete strengths to point out their distinctive features. The effect of the confinement factor and the diameter to thickness ratio on both strength and ductility in circular STCC columns employing UHPC was investigated. The applicability of current design codes such as EC4, AISC, AIJ and some available analytical models for concrete confined by steel tube was also validated by the comparison of ultimate loads between the prediction and the test results of Schneider (2006) and Xiong (2012). To predict the stress-strain curves for confined UHPC in circular STCC stub columns, a simplified model was proposed and verified by the comparison with experimental stress-strain curves.

Key Words
UHPC; STCC columns; confinement factor; strength; ductility; concrete filled steel tube

Address
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Structural Engineering, University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Straße 3, 34125, Kassel, Germany.

Abstract
In the stability and sensitivity design and diagnosis approaches, there are various methodologies available. Bond graph modeling by lumping technique is one of the universal methodologies in methodical analysis used by many researchers in all over the world. The accuracy of the method is validated in different arenas. Bond graphs are a concise, pictorial representation of the energy storage, dissipation and exchange mechanisms of interacting dynamic systems, subsystems and components. This paper proposes a bond graph modeling for distributed parameter systems using lumping techniques. Therefore, a steel frame structure was modeled to analyze employing bond graph modeling of distributed system using lumping technique. In the analytical part, the effectiveness of bond graphs to model this system is demonstrated. The dynamic responses of the system were computed and compared with those computed from the finite element analysis. The calculated maximum deflection time histories were found to be comparable. The sensitivity and the stability of the steel frame structure was also studied in different aspects. Thus, the proposed methodology, with its simplicity, can be used for stability and sensitivity analyses as alternative to finite element method for steel structures. The major value brought in the practical design is the simplicity of the proposed method for steel structures.

Key Words
bond graph modeling; lumping techniques; steel structures; stability; sensitivity

Address
(1) Ali Sari:
Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey;
(2) Kasim A. Korkmaz:
Eastern Michigan University, School of Visual and Built Environments, Ypsilanti, MI, USA.

Abstract
Rotating fluid induced vibration and instability of embedded piezoelectric nano-composite separators subjected to magnetic and electric fields is the main contribution of present work. The separator is modeled with cylindrical shell element and the structural damping effects are considered by Kelvin–Voigt model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are used as reinforcement and effective material properties are obtained by mixture rule. The perturbation velocity potential in conjunction with the linearized Bernoulli formula is used for describing the rotating fluid motion. The orthotropic surrounding elastic medium is considered by spring, damper and shear constants. The governing equations are derived on the bases of classical shell theory (CST), first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and sinusoidal shear deformation theory (SSDT). The nonlinear frequency and critical angular fluid velocity are calculated by differential quadrature method (DQM). The detailed parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of the external voltage, magnetic field, visco-Pasternak foundation, structural damping and volume percent of SWCNTs on the stability of structure. The numerical results are validated with other published works as well as comparing results obtained by three theories. Numerical results indicate that with increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs, the frequency and critical angular fluid velocity are increased.

Key Words
viscoelastic separators; rotating fluid; different shell theories; orthotropic viscoelastic medium; DQM

Address
(1) H. Rahimi Pour, A. Ghorbanpour Arani, Gh. Sheikhzadeh:
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran;
(2) A. Ghorbanpour Arani:
Institute of Nanoscience& Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

Abstract
The paper presents a numerical analysis of a steel-soil composite (SSC) culvert in the scope of static (dead and live) loads. The Abaqus program based on the finite element method (FEM) was used for calculations. Maximum displacements were obtained in the shell crown, and the largest stresses in the haunches. Calculation results were compared with the experimental ones and previous calculations obtained from the Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis (ARSA) program. The shapes of calculated displacements and stresses are similar to those obtained with the experiment, but the absolute values were generally higher than measured ones. The relative differences of calculated and measured values were in the range of 5-23% for displacements, and 15-42% for stresses. Developed calculation model of the SSC culvert in the Abaqus program allows obtaining reasonable values of internal forces in the culvert. Using both calculation programs, the relative differences for displacements were in the range of 15-39%, and 17-44% for stresses in favour of the Abaqus program. Three design methods (Sundquist-Pettersson, Duncan and CHBDC) were used to calculate the axial thrusts and bending moments. Obtained values were compared with test results. Generally, the design methods have conservative assumptions, especially in the live loads distribution, safety factors and consideration the interaction between soil and steel structure.

Key Words
steel-soil composite culvert; FE model; displacement; stress; live loads; backfill

Address
Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Katowicka 48, 45-061 Opole, Poland.

Abstract
The application of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) in steel structures primarily includes two categories, i.e., the bond-critical application and the contact-critical application. Debonding failure and buckling failure are the main failure modes for these two applications. Conventional electrometric techniques may not provide precise results because of the limitations associated with single-point contact measurements. A nondestructive full-field measurement technique is a valuable alternative to conventional methods. In this study, the digital image correlation (DIC) technique was adopted to investigate the bond behavior and buckling behavior of CFRP-steel composite members. The CFRP-to-steel bonded joint and the CFRPstrengthened square hollow section (SHS) steel column were tested to verify the suitability of the DIC technique. The stereo- DIC technique was utilized to measure continuous deformation. The bond-slip relationship of the CFRP-to-steel interface was derived using the DIC data. Additionally, a multi-camera DIC system consisting of four stereo-DIC subsystems was proposed and applied to the compressive test of CFRP-strengthened SHS steel column. The precise buckling location and CFRP delamination of the CFRP-strengthened SHS steel column were identified. The experimental results confirm that the stereo-DIC technique can provide effective measurements for investigating the behaviors of CFRP-steel composite members.

Key Words
CFRP; steel; bond behavior; buckling behavior; digital image correlation

Address
(1) Yun-Tong Dai, Tian-Yuan Ge, Fu-Jun Yang, Xiao-Yuan He:
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Engineering Mechanics, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China;
(2) Yun-Tong Dai, Tian-Yuan Ge, Fu-Jun Yang, Xiao-Yuan He:
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China;
(3) Hai-Tao Wang, Gang Wu:
Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China;
(4) Jian-Xiao Wan, Shuang-Yin Cao:
School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Abstract
In this paper the influence of aspect ratio, height ratio and material angle on static and free vibration behaviour of orthotropic elliptic paraboloid shells is studied by using a four-node hybrid stress finite element. The formulation of the element is based on Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. The element is developed by combining a hybrid plane stress element and a hybrid plate element. A parametric study is carried out for static and free vibration response of orthotropic elliptic paraboloid shells with respect to displacements, internal forces, fundamental frequencies and mode shapes by varying the aspect and height ratios, and material angle.

Key Words
elliptic paraboloid shell; assumed stress hybrid element; finite element; static analysis; free vibration

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.


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