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Volume 8, Number 5, May 2015

Engineers may encounter unpredictable cavities, sinkholes and karst conduits while tunneling in karst area, and water inrush disaster frequently occurs and endanger the construction safety, resulting in huge casualties and economic loss. Therefore, an optimal classification method based on grey system theory (GST) is established and applied to accurately predict the occurrence probability of water inrush. Considering the weights of evaluation indices, an improved formula is applied to calculate the grey relational grade. Two evaluation indices systems are proposed for risk assessment of water inrush in design stage and construction stage, respectively, and the evaluation indices are quantitatively graded according to four risk grades. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of optimal classification method, comparisons of the evaluation results derived from the aforementioned method and attribute synthetic evaluation system are made. Furthermore, evaluation of engineering practice is carried through with the Xiakou Tunnel as a case study, and the evaluation result is generally in good agreement with the field-observed result. This risk assessment methodology provides a powerful tool with which engineers can systematically evaluate the risk of water inrush in karst tunnels.

Key Words
optimal classification method; GST; risk assessment; water inrush; engineering application

Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Ji\'nan 250061, Shandong, China.

This research provides insight on the laboratory investigation of the engineering properties of a lateritic soil modified with the mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes (MOFIC), which has a history of being used as an earthen plaster. The soil is classified, according to AASHTO classification system, as A-2-6(1). The Atterberg limits, compaction, permeability, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength of the soil were determined for each of 0, 4, 8 and 12% addition of the MOFIC, by dry weight of the soil. The plasticity index, optimum moisture content, swell potential, unconfined compressive strength and permeability decreased while the soaked and unsoaked CBR increased, with increasing MOFIC contents. The engineering properties of the natural soil, which only satisfies standard requirements for use as subgrade material, became improved by the application of MOFIC such that it meets the standard requirements for use as sub-base material for road construction. The effects of MOFIC on the engineering properties of the soil resulted from bioclogging and biocementation processes. MOFIC is recommended for use as a modifier of the engineering properties of soils, especially those with similar characteristics to that of the soil used in this study, to be used as a pavement layer material. It is more economical and environmentfriendly than conventional soil stabilizers or modifiers.

Key Words
green technology; Opuntia ficus-indica; pavement material; soil stabilization; tropical soil

Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Nigeria.

Many seismically vulnerable regions in India and worldwide are located on deep soil deposits which extend to several hundred meters of depth. It has been well recognized that the earthquake shaking is altered by geological conditions at the location of building. As seismic waves propagates through uppermost layers of soil and rock, these layers serve as filter and they can increase the duration and amplitude of earthquake motion within narrow frequency bands. The amplification of these waves is largely controlled by mechanical properties of these layers, which are function of their stiffness and damping. Stiffness and damping are further influenced by soil type and thickness. In the current study, an attempt has been made to study the seismic site response of deep soils. Three hypothetical homogeneous soil models (e.g., soft soil, medium soil and hard soil) lying on bedrock are considered. Depth of half space is varied from 30 m to 2,000 m in this study. Controlled synthetic motions are used as input base motion. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analyses are carried out using a computer package DEEPSOIL. Conventional approach of analysing up to 30 m depth has been found to be inadequate for deep soil sites. PGA values are observed to be higher for deeper soil profiles as compared to shallow soil profiles indicating that deeper soil profiles are more prone to liquefaction and other related seismic hazards under earthquake ground shaking. The study recommends to deal the deeper soil sections more carefully for estimating the amplification factors for seismic hazard assessment at the surface.

Key Words
deep soil; ground response analysis; synthetic controlled motion; PGA; amplification

(1) Ravi S. Jakka, M.L. Sharma:
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee - 247 667, India;
(2) Md. Hussain:
Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, India.

Weathering is the breaking/cutting down process of rocks due to physical and chemical processes in natural as well as artificial environment including CO2 injection for storage in the sediment, or natural resource recovery process. This study suggests an alternative method to estimate the degree of weathering for granites. A series of laboratory and field experiments are performed to measure electrical resistivities on various rock samples experienced different degrees of weathering and their residual soils under different saturation conditions. It is found that the normalized electrical resistivity increases with a decrease in water absorption and the saturation. Simple boundaries are suggested to identify the weathering degree of granites, based on limited data. Field test results for three sites confirm that the suggested method could be estimated well the degree of weathering of granites compared with the other methods suggested previously. Although further research is required, this study suggests that an electrical resistivity could be an effective approach to estimate the degree of weathering of granites compared with the other methods suggested previously.

Key Words
degree of weathering; electrical resistivity; Korean granite; weathering classification

(1) Tae-Min Oh:
Geologic Environment Division, Underground Space Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 305-350, Korea;
(2) Gye-Chun Cho:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Korea;
(3) Thai An Son:
Architectural Planning Manager, Department of Planning, GS E&C, Hanoi, Vietnam;
(4) Hee-Hwan Ryu:
Power Transmission Laboratory, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea;
(5) Changho Lee:
Department of Marine and Civil Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, 550-749, Korea.

Methods commonly used to evaluate the improvement of lime-treated expansive soil include swelling characteristics and unconfined compressive strength. In the field, lime-treated expansive soils are in compacted unsaturated state. Soil water characteristic curves (SWCCs) represent a key parameter to interpret and describe the behavior of unsaturated expansive soil. This paper investigates the use of SWCC as a technique to evaluate improvements acquired by expansive soil after lime treatment. Three different lime contents were considered 2%, 4% and 6% by dry weight of clay. Series of tests were performed to determine the SWCC for the different lime content under curing periods of 7 and 28 day. Correlations between key features of the soil water characteristic curves of lime treated expansive soils and basic engineering behavior such as swelling characteristics and unconfined compression strength were established. Test results revealed that initial slope (S1), saturated water content (wsat), and air entry value (AEV) play an important role in reflecting improvement in engineering behavior achieved by lime treatment.

Key Words
unsaturated soil; expansive soil; lime treatment; soil water characteristic curves

(1) Ahmed M. Al-Mahbashi, Tamer Y. Elkady:
Eng. Abdullah Bugshan Research Chair in Expansive Soils, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;
(2) Tamer Y. Elkady:
Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt;
(3) Talal O. Alrefeai:
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This paper investigates the time dependent behaviour of Haarajoki test embankment on soft structured clay deposit. Half of the embankment is constructed on an area improved with prefabricated vertical drains, while the other half is constructed on the natural deposit without any ground improvement. To analyse the PVD-improved subsoil, axisymmetric vertical drains were converted into equivalent plane strain conditions using three different approaches. The construction and consolidation of the embankment are analysed with the finite element method using a recently developed anisotropic model for timedependent behaviour of soft clays. The constitutive model, namely ACM-S accounts for combined effects of plastic anisotropy, interparticle bonding and degradation of bonds and creep. For comparison, the problem is also analysed with isotropic Soft Soil Creep and Modified Cam Clay models. The results of the numerical analyses are compared with the field measurements. The results show that neglecting effects of anisotropy, destructuration and creep may lead to inaccurate predictions of soft clay response. Additionally, the numerical results show that the matching methods accurately predict the consolidation behaviour of the embankment on PVD improved soft clays and provide a useful tool for engineering practice.

Key Words
embankment; soft clay; creep; anisotropy; destructuration; prefabricated vertical drains

Department of Civil Engineering, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Reclamation of closed dumping grounds is a potential solution to solve land scarce problems. Traditional geotechnical investigations of closed dumping grounds face some problems, such as the emission of hazardous liquids and gases, and the lack of ground information due to the discontinuity between two boreholes. Thus, noninvasive and continuous investigation methods are needed to supplement traditional geotechnical investigations. In this paper, two types of geophysical investigation methods, Seismic Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) and 2D Resistivity, were carried out to study noninvasive and continuous site investigations for dumping grounds. The two geophysical methods are able to profile the distribution of physical properties of the fill and original materials, by which the extent of the dumping ground can be found and some anomalies in the subsurface can be located. Boreholes were used to assist in locating the dumping material-ground interfaces. The results show that dumping material-ground interfaces obtained from the two geophysical methods are roughly consistent. Moreover, attempt is made in the paper to use the geophysical methods to classify the types of dumping materials. The results show that the classification of dumping materials using the geophysical methods follows the results of the manual sorting of the dumping materials from a borehole.

Key Words
dumping ground; geophysical investigation; SASW survey, 2D resistivity survey

(1) Ling Xin:
College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550 Haigang Avenue, Shanghai 201306, China;
(2) Jian Chu:
Department of Civil, Construction & Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, 328 Town Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011, United States;
(3) Jian Chu:
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore;
(4) Jing-Yuan Wang, Ke Yin, Huan-Huan Tong, Charles Y.H. Chia, Omar A. Mohamed Noh:
Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141, Singapore.

The prediction of impending collapse of deep tunnel is one of the most difficult problems. Collapse mechanism of deep tunnel in layered soils is derived using a new curved failure mechanism within the framework of upper bound theorem, and effects of seepage forces are considered. Nonlinear failure criterion is adopted in the present analysis, and the possible collapse shape of deep tunnel in the layered soils is discussed in this paper. In the layered soils, the internal energy dissipations along velocity discontinuity are calculated, and the external work rates are produced by weight, seepage forces and supporting pressure. With upper bound theorem of limit analysis, two different curve functions are proposed for the two different soil stratums. The specific shape of collapse surface is discussed, using the proposed curve functions. Effects of nonlinear coefficient, initial cohesion, pore water pressure and unit weight on potential collapse are analyzed. According to the numerical results, with the nonlinear coefficient increase, the shape of collapse block will increase. With initial cohesion of the upper soil increase, the shape of failure block will be flat, and with the lower soil improving, the size of collapsing will be large. Furthermore, the shape of collapsing will decrease with the unit weight decrease.

Key Words
collapse mechanism; layered soils; nonlinear criterion; seepage force; upper bound

School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Hunan 410075, China.

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