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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 2, February 2015
 

Abstract
Mathematical model has been developed for determination of temperature field in multilayer pavement and subgrade, which considers transfer of heat by conduction and convection, receiving of heat from total solar radiation and atmosphere emission, output of heat due to the emission from the surface of pavement. The developed model has been realized by the finite element method for two dimensional problem using two dimensional second order finite element. Calculations for temperature field have been made with the programme realized on the standard mathematical package MATLAB. Accuracy of the developed model has been evaluated by comparison of temperatures, obtained theoretically and experimentally. The results of comparison showed high accuracy of the model. Long-term calculation (within three months) has been made in pavement points in accordance with the data of meteorological station for air temperature. Some regularities have been determined for variation of temperature field.

Key Words
asphalt pavement; finite element method; transient temperature distribution

Address
Kazakhstan Highway Research Institute, 2A, Nurpeissov Street, Almaty, 050061, Republic of Kazakhstan.

Abstract
The observational method in tunnel engineering allows the evaluation in real time of the actual conditions of the ground and to take measures if its behavior deviates considerably from predictions. However, it lacks a consistent and structured methodology to use the monitoring data to adapt the support system in real time. The definition of limit criteria above which adaptation is required are not defined and complex inverse analysis procedures (Rechea et al. 2008, Levasseur et al. 2010, Zentar et al. 2001, Lecampion et al. 2002, Finno and Calvello 2005, Goh 1999, Cui and Pan 2012, Deng et al. 2010, Mathew and Lehane 2013, Sharifzadeh et al. 2012, 2013) may be needed to consistently analyze the problem. In this paper a methodology for the real time adaptation of the support systems during tunneling is presented. In a first step limit criteria for displacements and stresses are proposed. The methodology uses graphics that are constructed during the project stage based on parametric calculations to assist in the process and when these graphics are not available, since it is not possible to predict every possible scenario, inverse analysis calculations are carried out. The methodology is applied to the "Bois de Peu" tunnel which is composed by two tubes with over 500 m long. High uncertainty levels existed concerning the heterogeneity of the soil and consequently in the geomechanical design parameters. The methodology was applied in four sections and the results focus on two of them. It is shown that the methodology has potential to be applied in real cases contributing for a consistent approach of a real time adaptation of the support system and highlight the importance of the existence of good quality and specific monitoring data to improve the inverse analysis procedure.

Key Words
tunnel; observational method; inverse analysis; numerical modeling

Address
(1) Tiago Miranda, Marisa Pinheiro:
ISISE, University of Minho, Department of Civil Engineering, Campus de Azurém 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal;
(2) Daniel Dias:
Grenoble Alpes University, 3SR, UMR 5521, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France;
(3) St&$233;phanie Eclaircy-Caudron:
EDF, Division RTE, Lyon, France.

Abstract
The rapid urbanization in Pakistan is creating a shortage of sustainable construction sites with good soil conditions. Attempts have been made to use rice husk ash (RHA) in concrete industry of Pakistan, however, limited literature is available on its potential to improve local soils. This paper presents an experimental study on engineering properties of low and high plastic cohesive soils blended with 0-20% RHA by dry weight of soil. The decrease in plasticity index and shrinkage ratio indicates a reduction in swell potential of RHA treated cohesive soils which is beneficial for problems related to placing pavements and footings on such soils. It is also observed that the increased formation of pozzolanic products within the pore spaces of soil from physicochemical changes transforms RHA treated soils to a compact mass which decreases both total settlement and rate of settlement. A notable increase in friction angle with increase in RHA up to 16% was also observed in direct shear tests. It is concluded that RHA treatment is a cost-effective and sustainable alternate to deal with problematic local cohesive soils in agro-based developing countries like Pakistan.

Key Words
rice husk ash; expansive soil; soil stabilizer; plasticity; compaction; compressibility; swell pressure; shear strength

Address
(1) Mubashir Aziz:
College of Engineering, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;
(2) Masood Saleem:
Geotechnical Engineer, Keller Grundbau GmbH, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;
(3) Muhammad Irfan:
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract
Soil disturbance induced by installation of mandrel driven vertical drains decreases the in situ horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the soil in the vicinity of the drains, decelerating the consolidation rate. According to available literature, several different profiles for the hydraulic conductivity variation with the radial distance from the vertical drain, influencing the excess pore water pressure dissipation rate, have been identified. In addition, it is well known that the visco-plastic properties of the soil also influence the excess pore water pressure dissipation rate and consequently the settlement rate. In this study, a numerical solution adopting an elastic visco-plastic model with nonlinear creep function incorporated in the consolidation equations has been developed to investigate the effects of disturbed zone properties on the time dependent behaviour of soft soil deposits improved with vertical drains and preloading. The employed elastic visco-plastic model is based on the framework of the modified Cam-Clay model capturing soil creep during excess pore water pressure dissipation. Besides, nonlinear variations of creep coefficient with stress and time and permeability variations during the consolidation process are considered. The predicted results have been compared with Vasby test fill measurements. According to the results, different variations of the hydraulic conductivity profile in the disturbed zone result in varying excess pore water pressure dissipation rate and consequently varying the effective vertical stresses in the soil profile. Thus, the creep coefficient and the creep strain limit are notably influenced resulting in significant changes in the predicted settlement rate.

Key Words
numerical analysis; consolidation; visco-plastic behaviour; creep; vertical drains; soil disturbance; preloading; post-construction settlement

Address
Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

Abstract
A series of laboratory model tests were conducted to investigate the effects of buried pipes location on the bearing capacity of strip footing in cohesionless soil. The variables examined in the testing program include relative density of the sand, loading rate of tests, burial depths of pipe and horizontal distance of pipe to footing. The test results showed a significant increase in bearing capacities when embedment ratio of pipe and horizontal distance of pipe to footing were increased. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that the location of pipes and relative density of sand are main parameters that affect the bearing capacity of strip footing. However, loading rate has not considerable effect on bearing capacity.

Key Words
embedment ratio; loading rate; pipes; bearing capacity; laboratory tests

Address
(1) Selcuk Bildik:
Department of Civil Engineering, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Osmaniye, 80000, Turkey;
(2) Mustafa Laman:
Department of Civil Engineering, Cukurova University, Adana, 01330, Turkey.

Abstract
From the related engineering principles, analytical solutions for horizontal crack initiation and propagation on a coal panel floor-underlying strata interface due to coal panel excavation are derived in this paper. Two important concepts, namely the critical panel width of horizontal crack initiation on the panel floor-underlying strata interface and the critical panel width of vertical fracture (crack) initiation in the panel floor, have been presented. The resulting analytical solution indicates that: (1) the first criterion can be used to express the condition under which horizontal plane cracks (on the panel floor-underlying strata interface or in the panel floor because of delamination) due to the mining induced vertical stress will initiate and propagate; (2) the second criterion can be used to express the condition under which vertical plane cracks (in the panel floor) due to the mining induced horizontal stress will initiate and propagate; (3) this orthogonal set of horizontal and vertical plane cracks, once formed, will provide the necessary weak network for the flow of gas to inrush into the panel. Two characteristic equations are given to quantitatively estimate both the critical panel width of vertical fracture initiation in the panel floor and the critical panel width of horizontal crack initiation on the interface between the panel floor and its underlying strata. The significance of this study is to provide not only some theoretical bases for understanding the fundamental mechanism of a longwall floor gas inrush problem but also a benchmark solution for verifying any numerical methods that are used to deal with this kind of gas inrush problem.

Key Words
crack initiation; analytical solution; panel floor fracture; critical panel width

Address
Computational Geosciences Research Centre, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

Abstract
In this study, the authors present a coupled fluid-structures-seabed interaction analysis of a monopile type of wind turbine foundations in liquefiable soils. A two dimensional analysis is performed with a nonlinear stiffness degradation model incorporated in the finite difference program Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC), which captured the fundamental mechanisms of the monopiles in saturated granular soil. The effects of inertia and the kinematic flow of soil are investigated separately, to highlight the importance of considering the combined effect of these phenomena on the seismic design of offshore monopiles. Different seismic loads, such as those experienced in the Kobe, Santa Cruz, Loma Prieta, Kocaeli, and Morgan Hill earthquakes, are analyzed. The pore water pressure development, relative displacements, soil skeleton deformation and monopile bending moment are obtained for different predominant frequencies and peak accelerations. The findings are verified with results in the liter.

Key Words
offshore monopile; liquefaction; inertia effect; dynamic response; numerical analysis

Address
(1) Amin Barari, Mehdi Bayat, Lars Bo Ibsen, Lars Andersen Vabbersgaard:
Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngardsholmsvej 57, 9000 Aalborg, Aalborg, Denmark;
(2) Meysam Saadati:
Department of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran.

Abstract
To research and analyze the differential settlements of foundations specifically, site investigations of existing railways and metro were firstly carried out. Then, the centrifugal test was used to observe differential settlements in different position between foundations on the basis of investigation. The theoretical model was established according to the stress diffusion method and Fourier method to establish an analytical solution of embankment differential settlement between different foundations. Finally, theoretical values and experimental values were analyzed comparatively. The research results show that both in horizontal and vertical directions, evident differential settlement exists in a limited area on both sides of the vertical interface between different foundations. The foundation with larger elastic modulus can transfer more additional stress and cause relatively less settlement. Differential settlement value decreases as the distance to vertical interface decreases. In the vertical direction of foundation, mass differential settlement also exists on both sides of the vertical interface and foundation with larger elastic modulus can transfer more additional stress. With the increase of relative modulus of different foundations, foundation with lower elastic modulus has larger settlement. Meanwhile, differential settlement is more obvious. The main error sources in theoretical and experimental values include: (a) different load form; (b) foundation characteristics differences; (c) modulus conversion; (d) effect of soil internal friction.

Key Words
railways embankment; vertical interface; differential settlement; existing railways investigation; theoretical model; centrifugal test

Address
(1) Changdan Wang, Shunhua Zhou, Binglong Wang:
Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, 4800 Cao'an Road, Shanghai, 201804 China;
(2) Changdan Wang, Peijun Guo, Hui Su:
Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L6 Canada.


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