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CONTENTS
Volume 29, Number 3, May10 2022 (Special Issue)
 


Abstract
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Key Words
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Address
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Abstract
In submerged floating tunnels (SFTs), a next-generation maritime transportation infrastructure, the tunnel module floats in water due to buoyancy. For the effective and economical use of SFTs, connection with the ground is inevitable, but the stability of the shore connection is weak due to stress concentration caused by the displacement difference between the subsea bored tunnel and the SFT. The use of an elastic joint has been proposed as a solution to solve the stability problem, but it changes the dynamic characteristics of the SFT, such as natural frequency and mode shape. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate the elastic joints in shore connections, assuming that the ground is a hard rock without displacement. In addition, a small-scale model test was performed for FEM model validation. A parametric study was conducted on the resonance behavior such as the natural frequency change and velocity, stress, and reaction force distribution change of the SFT system by varying the joint stiffness under loading conditions of various frequencies and directions. The results indicated that the natural frequency of the SFT system increased as the stiffness of the elastic joint increased, and the risk of resonance was the highest in the low-frequency environment. Moreover, stress concentration was observed in both the SFT and the shore connection when resonance occurred in the vertical mode. The results of this study are expected to be utilized in the process of quantitative research such as designing elastic joints to prevent resonance in the future.

Key Words
elastic joint design; finite element method; natural frequency; resonance behavior; submerged floating tunnel

Address
Joohyun Park, Seok-Jun Kang, Hyun-Joong Hwang and Gye-Chun Cho: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute for Science and Technology,
291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 31414, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The most widely used parameter to represent rock abrasiveness is the Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI). The CAI value can be applied to predict wear in TBM cutters. It has been extensively demonstrated that the CAI is affected significantly by cementation degree, strength, and amount of abrasive minerals, i.e., the quartz content or equivalent quartz content in rocks. The relationship between the properties of rocks and the CAI is investigated in this study. A database comprising 223 observations that includes rock types, uniaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strengths, equivalent quartz contents, quartz contents, brittleness indices, and CAIs is constructed. A linear model is developed by selecting independent variables while considering multicollinearity after performing multiple regression analyses. Machine learning-based regression methods including support vector regression, regression tree regression, k-nearest neighbors regression, random forest regression, and artificial neural network regression are used in addition to multiple linear regression. The results of the random forest regression model show that it yields the best prediction performance.

Key Words
Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI); machine learning; regression; rock abrasiveness; wear

Address
No-Sang Kwak: SK C&C Data Platform Group, Seongnam 13558, Republic of Korea
Tae Young Ko: Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In this study, a model experiment and field experiment was conducted to introduce the optimal tensile force when constructing a non-open cut tunnel according to the ground conditions of sandy soil. CMR (Concrete Modular Roof) method is economical because of the high precision and excellent durability, and corrosion resistance, and the inserted parts can be used as the main structure of a tunnel. In addition the CMR method has a stable advantage in interconnection because the concrete beam is press-fitted compared to the NTR (New Tubular Roof) method, and the need for quality control can be minimized. The ground conditions were corrected by adjusting the relative density of sandy soil during the construction of non-open cut tunnels, and after introducing various tensile forces, the surface settlement according to excavation was measured, and the optimal tensile force was derived. As a result of the experiment, the amount of settlement according to the relative density was found to be minor. Furthermore, analysis of each tensile force based on loose ground conditions resulted in an average decrease of approximately 22% in maximum settlement when the force was increased by 0.8 kN per segment. Considering these results, it is indicated that more than 2.0 kN tensile force per segment is recommended for settlement of the upper ground.

Key Words
CMR (Concrete Modular Roof) method; ground condition; non-open cut tunnel; surface settlement; tensile force

Address
Hyuk-Sang Jung, Jin-Hwan Kim and Hwan-Hee Yoon: Department of Railroad Construction & Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Gyeongbuk, Korea
Myung Sagong: Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI), Uiwang, Kyunggi, Korea
Hyoung-Hoon Lee: Daesan Civil Technology, Seoul, Korea

Abstract
To investigate the curing temperature effect on the engineering properties of ground granulated blast furnace slag-cement bentonite (GGBS-CB) slurry for cutoff walls, the laboratory experiments including the setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and permeability tests were carried out. The mixing procedure for GGBS-CB slurry was as follows: (1) montmorillonite-based bentonite slurry was first fabricated and hydrated for four hours, and (2) cement or GGBS with cement was added to the bentonite slurry. The dosage range of GGBS was from 0 to 90 % of cement by mass fraction. The GGBS-CB slurry specimens were cured and stored in environmental chamber at temperature of 1414+-1, 21+-1, 28+-1C and humidity of 95+-2% until target days. The highest average temperature of three seasons in South Korea was selected and used for the tests. The experimental results indicated that in early age (less than 28 days) of curing the engineering properties of GGBS-CB slurry were primarily affected by the curing temperature, whereas the replacement ratio of GGBS became a main factor to determine the properties of the slurry as the curing time increased.

Key Words
curing temperature; cutoff walls; ground granulated blast furnace slag; permeability; slag-cement bentonite; strength

Address
Taeyeon Kim and Bongjik Lee: Department of Civil Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation,
50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 27469, Republic of Korea
Seongwon Hong: Department of Safety Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation,
50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 27469, Republic of Korea

Abstract
A disc cutter is an excavation tool on a tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutterhead; it crushes and cuts rock mass while the machine excavates using the cutterhead' rotational movement. Disc cutter wear occurs naturally. Thus, along with the management of downtime and excavation efficiency, abrasioned disc cutters need to be replaced at the proper time; otherwise, the construction period could be delayed and the cost could increase. The most common prediction models for TBM performance and for the disc cutter lifetime have been proposed by the Colorado School of Mines and Norwegian University of Science and Technology. However, design parameters of existing models do not well correspond to the field values when a TBM encounters complex and difficult ground conditions in the field. Thus, this study proposes a series of machine learning models to predict the disc cutter lifetime of a shield TBM using the excavation (machine) data during operation which is response to the rock mass. This study utilizes five different machine learning techniques: four types of classification models (i.e., K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machine, Decision Tree, and Staking Ensemble Model) and one artificial neural network (ANN) model. The KNN model was found to be the best model among the four classification models, affording the highest recall of 81%. The ANN model also predicted the wear rate of disc cutters reasonably well.

Key Words
ANN; disc cutter wear; excavation data; machine learning classification models; shield TBM

Address
Yunhee Kim, Jiyeon Hong, Jaewoo Shin and Bumjoo Kim: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dongguk University, 30 Pildong-ro 1-gil, Jung-Gu, Seoul, 04620, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The rheological and penetration characteristics of sodium alginate and xanthan gum aqueous solutions were analyzed for the development of biopolymer-based injection materials. The results of viscosity measurements for the rheological characteristics analysis show that all aqueous biopolymer solutions exhibit a tendency for shear-thinning, i.e., the apparent viscosity decreases as the shear rate increases. In addition, a regression analysis using several models (Power-law, Casson, Sisko, and Cross) was applied to the shear-thinning fluid analysis results, the highest accuracy was determined by applying the power-law model. The micromodel experiment for the penetration characteristics analysis determined that all biopolymer aqueous solutions show higher pore saturation than water, and that pore saturation tends to increase as the flow rate and concentration increases. When comparing the rheological and penetration characteristics of the biopolymer aqueous solution used in this study, the xanthan gum aqueous solution showed a fully developed shear-thinning tendency, unlike the sodium alginate aqueous solution. This tendency is considered to have the advantage of enhancement injectability and pore saturation.

Key Words
biopolymer; penetration characteristics; pore saturation; shear-thinning fluid flow; viscosity

Address
Jae-Eun Ryou and Jongwon Jung: Department of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu,
Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In this research, a series of dynamic numerical analysis were carried out for deep underground building structures under the various earthquake conditions. Dynamic numerical analysis model was developed based on the PLAXIS2D and calibrated with centrifuge test data from Kim et al. (2016). The hardening soil model with small strain stiffness (HSSMALL) was adopted for soil constitutive model, and interface elements was employed at the interface between plate and soil elements to simulate dynamic interaction effect. In addition, parametric study was performed for fixed condition and embedded depth. Finally, the dynamic behavior of underground building structure was thoroughly analyzed and evaluated.

Key Words
deep underground building structures; earthquake; HSSMALL; PLAXIS2D; seismic response

Address
Mintaek Yoo: Railroad Structure Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Euiwang,
360-1 in Wolam-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
Sun Yong Kwon: Division of Public Infrastructure Assessment, Korea Environment Institute,
370 Sicheong-daero, Sejong-si, Republic of Korea
Seongwon Hong: Department of Safety Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation,
50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 27469, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The direct shear test is commonly used to evaluate the shear behavior of frozen soil-structure interfaces under normal stress. However, failure criteria, such as the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion, are needed to obtain the unconfined shear strength. Hence, the punch shear test, which is usually used to estimate the shear strength of rocks without confinement, was examined in this study to directly determine the adfreezing strength. It is measured as the shear strength of the frozen soil-structure interface under unconfined conditions. Different soils of silica sand, field sand, and field clay were prepared inside the steel and concrete ring structures. Soil and ring structures were frozen at the target temperature for more than 24 h. A punch shear test was then conducted. The test results show that the adfreezing strength increased with a decrease in the target temperature and increase in the initial water content, owing to the increase in ice content. The adfreezing strength of field clay was the smallest when compared with the other soil specimens because of the large amount of unfrozen water content. The field sand with the larger normalized roughness showed greater adfreezing strength than the silica sand with a lower normalized roughness. From the experiment and analysis, the applicability of the punch shear test was examined to measure the adfreezing strength of the frozen soil-structure interface. To find a proper sample dimension, supplementary experiments or numerical analysis will be needed in further research.

Key Words
adfreezing strength; frozen soil-structure interface; ice content; punch shear test; unfrozen water content

Address
Sangyeong Park, Chaemin Hwang, Hangseok Choi: School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Korea
Youngjin Son: Eco Infra Solution Team, SK ecoplant, 32 Insadong 7-gil, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea
Young Ko: Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Kangwon National University, 1, Kangwondaehak-gil,
Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Korea

Abstract
Tunnel boring machines combined with the earth pressure balanced shield method (EPB shield TBMs) have been adopted in urban areas as they allow excavation of tunnels with limited ground deformation through continuous and repetitive excavation and support. Nevertheless, the expansion of TBM construction requires much more minor and exquisitely controlled surface settlement to prevent economic loss. Several parametric studies controlling the tunnel's geometry, ground properties, and TBM operational factors assuming ordinary conditions for EPB shield TBM excavation have been conducted, but the impact of excessive excavation on the induced settlement has not been adequately studied. This study conducted a numerical evaluation of surface settlement induced by the ground loss from face imbalance, excessive excavation, and tail void grouting. The numerical model was constructed using FLAC3D and validated by comparing its result with the field data from literature. Then, parametric studies were conducted by controlling the ground stiffness, face pressure, tail void grouting pressure, and additional volume of muck discharge. As a result, the contribution of these operational factors to the surface settlement appeared differently depending on the ground stiffness. Except for the ground stiffness as the dominant factor, the order of variation of surface settlement was investigated, and the volume of additional muck discharge was found to be the largest, followed by the face pressure and tail void grouting pressure. The results from this study are expected to contribute to the development of settlement prediction models and understanding the surface settlement behavior induced by TBM excavation.

Key Words
EPB shield TBM; excessive excavation; face pressure; ground loss; surface settlement; tail void grouting pressure

Address
Jun-Beom An, Seok-Jun Kang, Jin Kim and Gye-Chun Cho: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Accurate prediction of mixed ground conditions ahead of a tunnel face is of vital importance for safe excavation using tunnel boring machines (TBMs). Previous studies have primarily focused on electrical resistivity surveys from the ground surface for geotechnical investigation. In this study, an FE (finite element) numerical model was developed to simulate electrical resistivity surveys for the prediction of risky mixed ground conditions in front of a tunnel face. The proposed FE model is validated by comparing with the apparent electrical resistivity values obtained from the analytical solution corresponding to a vertical fault on the ground surface (i.e., a simplified model). A series of parametric studies was performed with the FE model to analyze the effect of geological and sensor geometric conditions on the electrical resistivity survey. The parametric study revealed that the interface slope between two different ground formations affects the electrical resistivity measurements during TBM excavation. In addition, a large difference in electrical resistivity between two different ground formations represented the dramatic effect of the mixed ground conditions on the electrical resistivity values. The parametric studies of the electrode array showed that the proper selection of the electrode spacing and the location of the electrode array on the tunnel face of TBM is very important. Thus, it is concluded that the developed FE numerical model can successfully predict the presence of a mixed ground zone, which enables optimal management of potential risks.

Key Words
electrical resistivity survey; mixed ground; numerical analysis; tunnel boring machine

Address
Minkyu Kang, JunHo Lee and Hangseok Choi: School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Civil Engineering, Korea University,
145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Soojin Kim: Department of Micro/Nano System, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Abstract
TBM concrete segment requires a higher level of material properties compared to general concrete structures due to difficulties in maintenance and uncertainty in ground conditions. In this regard, recently, as one of the methods to achieve enhancement effect on concrete strength, many researchers have been focusing on adding CNTs to concrete mixture. However, even CNTs do not compensate the weakness that concrete exhibits brittle behavior after cracking. Separately, over the past few decades, a number of studies have been conducted on fiber reinforced concrete which exhibits ductile behavior due to fibers bridging cracks. However, only limited studies have been conducted to employ the advantages of the both materials together. In this study, an experimental program has been conducted to investigate the effect of CNTs on the workability and the compressive behavior of PVA-ECC which exhibits ductile tensile behavior with well-distributed cracks even without a conventional rebar. In addition to the compression test, SEM analysis has been also conducted for detailed investigation in the microstructure. The variable was the CNTs mix ratio, which were set to 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50 wt.% to the binding materials. It was observed though the test results that as the CNTs mix ratio increased, the workability considerably decreased with the reduced slump and slump flow. From the compression test results, it was also investigated that the compressive behavior was improved since the compressive strength, the strain corresponding to the compressive strength, and the modulus of elasticity increased with an increase of CNTs mix ratio. The contents of this paper will be useful for relevant research areas such as fiber reinforced concrete with CNTs which might be applied for high performance TMB concrete segments.

Key Words
cementitious composites; CNTs; compressive behavior; PVA fibers; SEM analysis

Address
Dongmin Lee and Seong-Cheol Lee: Department of Civil Engineering, Kyungpook National University,
80, Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, 41566, South Korea
Sung-Won Yoo: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gachon University,
1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Gyeonggi-do, 13120, South Korea

Abstract
Tunnel site where high water pressure is applied, such as subsea tunnel, generally selects the shield TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) to maintain the tunnel excavation face. The shield TBM has cutters installed, and the cutters wear out during the process of excavation, so it should be checked and replaced regularly. This is called CHI (Cutterhead Intervention). The conventional CHI under high water pressure is very disadvantageous in terms of safety and economics because humans perform work in response to high water pressure and huge water inflow in the chamber. To overcome this disadvantage, this study proposes a new method to dramatically reduce water pressure and water ingress by injecting an appropriate grout solution into the front of the tunnel face through the shield TBM chamber, called New Face Grouting Method (NFGM). The tunnel model tests were performed to determine the characteristics, injection volume, and curing time of grout solution to be applied to the NFGM. Model test apparatus was composed of a pressure soil tank, a model shield TBM, a grout tank, and an air compressor to measure the amount of water inflow into the chamber. The model tests were conducted by changing the injection amount of the grout solution, the curing time after the grout injection, and the water/cement ratio of grout solution. From an economic point of view, the results showed that the injection volume of 1.0 L, curing time of 6 hours, and water/cement ratio of the grout solution between 1.5 and 2.0 are the most economical. It can be concluded that this study has presented a method to economically perform the CHI under the high water pressure.

Key Words
cutter head intervention; face pressure; grouting; high water pressure; tunnel boring machine

Address
Soo-Kwon Ham, Beom-Ju kim and Seok-Won Lee: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University,
120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Face stability analyses provides the most probable failure mechanisms and the understanding about parameters that need to be considered for the evaluation of ground movements caused by tunneling. After the Upper Bound Method (UBM) solution which can consider the influence of seepage forces and depth-dependent effective cohesion is verified with the numerical experiments, the probabilistic model is proposed to calculate the unbiased limiting tunnel collapse pressure. A reliability analysis of a shallow circular tunnel driven by a pressurized shield in a frictional and cohesive soil is presented to consider the inherent uncertainty in the input parameters and the proposed model. The probability of failure that exceeding a specified applied pressure at the tunnel face is estimated. Sensitivity and importance measures are computed to identify the key parameters and random variables in the model.

Key Words
face stability; importance measures; probabilistic model; reliability analysis; sensitivity; UBM

Address
Jun Kyung Park:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Daelim University College,
Anyang, Gyeonggi Province, 13916, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The bored tunneling method is generally preferred for urban tunnel construction, However the cut & cover tunnel is still necessary for special conditions, such as metro station and access structures. In some case, deep excavation for cut & cover construction is planed of irregular and unusual shape, as a consequence, the convex and concave corner is often encountered during that excavation. In particular, discontinuity or imbalance of the support structure in the convex corner can lead to collapse, which may result in damages and casualties. In this study, the behavior of the convex corner of retaining structure were investigated using 3-dimensional numerical models established to be able to simulate the split-shaped behavior of convex corners. To improve the stability in the vicinity of the convex corner, several stabilizing measures were proposed and estimated numerically. It is found that linking two discretized wales at the convex corner can effectively perform the control of deformation. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that the stabilizing measures can be enhanced when the tie-material linking two discretized wales is installed at the depth of the maximum wall deflection.

Key Words
convex corner; deep excavation; ground surface settlement; split-shaped behavior; wall deformation mode

Address
Kyu-Tae Nam: Dohwa Engineering, 438 Samseong-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06178, Korea
Jae-Ho Jeong: SYTEC, Seoul, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Seung-Hyun Kim, Kang-Hyun Kim and Jong-Ho Shin: Department of Civil Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea

Abstract
Abnormal climate events are occurring frequently around the world. In particular, cold waves and heavy snow lead to damage and deterioration of facilities, which can cause loss of life or property damage, such as shortening the lifespan of facilities. Therefore, it is very important to prepare an appropriate maintenance system and to establish a strategy to cope with abnormal weather conditions. In this study, laboratory freezing experiments were performed to analyze the freeze-thaw characteristics affecting the tunnel concrete lining, and heat flow analysis was carried out based on the test results. Based on these experimental and theoretical analysis results, quantitative freeze-thaw evaluation criteria for tunnel concrete linings were proposed.

Key Words
freeze-thaw evaluation criteria; freezing and thawing; fourier's law; heat flow analysis; thermal energy

Address
Joon-Shik Moon: Department of Civil Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
Jai-Wook An, Hong-Kyoon Kim and Jong-Gun Lee: Department of Ground Safety, KALIS, Gyeongsangnamdo 52852, Republic of Korea
Tim Lattner: Office of Maintenance, DOT, State of Florida 32399-0450, USA

Abstract
Undercutting using an actuated disc cutter (ADC) involves more complex cutting mechanism than traditional rock cutting does, requiring the application of various new cutting parameters, such as eccentricity, cutter inclination angle, and axis rotational speed. This study presents cutting-edge laboratory-scale testing equipment that allows performing ADC tests. ADC tests were carried out on a concrete block with a specified strength of 20 MPa, using a variety of cutting settings that included penetration depth (p), eccentricity (e), and linear velocity (v). ADC, unlike pick and disc cutting, has a non-linear cutting path with a dynamic cutting direction, requiring the development of a new method for predicting cutting force and specific energy. The influence of cutting parameters to the cutter forces were discussed. The ratio of eccentricity to the penetration depth (e/p) was proposed to evaluate the optimal cutting condition. Specific energy varies with e/p ratio, and exhibits optimum values in particular cases. In general, actuated undercutting may potentially give a more efficient cutting than conventional pick and disc cutting by demonstrating reasonably lower specific energy in a comparable cutting environment.

Key Words
actuated disc cutter; rock cutting performance; specific energy; undercutting mechanism

Address
Hoyoung Jeong: Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University,
45 Yongso-ro Nam-gu Busan 48513, Republic of Korea
Yudhidya Wicaksana: Center for Industrial Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10 Coblong Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Sehun Kim and Seokwon Jeon: Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Research Institute of Energy and Resources, Seoul National University,
1 Gwanak-ro Gwanak-gu Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea


Abstract
Accurately evaluating and predicting the performance of facilities is a key task in establishing a maintenance strategy for facilities. The importance of performance evaluation is becoming more pronounced, especially when the aging of facilities requires a huge budget. In this study, performance assessment models were developed for road and railway tunnels. Delphi analysis was performed to identify sub-elements necessary to evaluate the performance of a tunnel. The relative importance of the evaluation factors was derived from the AHP analysis. The correlation analysis was performed between each assessment factor and the final result to verify the significance of the model. For the correlation analysis, the survey data measured through precision safety diagnosis in tunnels in use was applied. The cost effectiveness analysis was also conducted according to the scenarios with different composition of performance factors in order to improve the practical applicability of the evaluation model developed in this study.

Key Words
AHP; evaluation; maintenance; performance; tunnel

Address
Hong-Kyoon Kim and Jai-Wook An: Department of Ground Safety, KALIS, Gyeongsangnamdo 52852, Korea
Joon-Shik Moon: Department of Civil Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
E.S. Michael: State Maintenance Office, DOT, State of Florida 32399-0450, USA


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