Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


gae
 
CONTENTS
Volume 24, Number 5, March10 2021
 


Abstract
Due to the complexity of the causes of the sliding mass instabilities, landslide susceptibility and hazard evaluation are difficult, but they can be more carefully considered and regionally evaluated by using new programming technologies to minimize the hazard. This study aims to evaluate the landslide hazard zonation in the Tabriz region, Iran. A fuzzy logic-based multi-criteria decision-making method was proposed for susceptibility analysis and preparing the hazard zonation maps implemented in MATLAB programming language and Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. In this study, five main factors have been identified as triggering including climate (i.e., precipitation, temperature), geomorphology (i.e., slope gradient, slope aspect, land cover), tectonic and seismic parameters (i.e., tectonic lineament congestion, distribution of earthquakes, the unsafe radius of main faults, seismicity), geological and hydrological conditions (i.e., drainage patterns, hydraulic gradient, groundwater table depth, weathered geo-materials), and human activities (i.e., distance to roads, distance to the municipal areas) in the study area. The results of analyses are presented as a landslide hazard map which is classified into 5 different sensitive categories (i.e., insignificant to very high potential). Then, landslide susceptibility maps were prepared for the Tabriz region, which is categorized in a high-sensitive area located in the northern parts of the area. Based on these maps, the Bozgoosh-Sahand mountainous belt, Misho-Miro Mountains and western highlands of Jolfa have been delineated as risk-able zones.

Key Words
landslide susceptibility; geohazard; multiple-decision method; geographic information system (GIS); fuzzy logic

Address
Yaser A. Nanehkaran and Yimin Mao: School of Information Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China

Mohammad Azarafza and Mustafa K. Kockar : Department of Civil Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

Hong-Hu Zhu: School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu,

Abstract
Investigation on the compressibility and shear strength of compacted loess is of great importance for the design and operation of engineering infrastructures in filling area. In this study, the mechanical behaviors of Yan'an compacted loess are investigated at various dry densities and water contents by conducting one dimensional compression and direct shear tests. And the elastic compressibility, plastic compressibility, yield stress and strength are obtained from the experiments. Results show that when water content increases, plastic compressibility parameter increases, but yield stress decreases. However, the increase of dry density leads to a decrease in plastic compressibility parameter but an increase in yield stress. In addition, elastic compressibility parameter is found to be a constant which is irrelevant to water content and dry density. As for strength, cohesion and internal friction angle is directly proportional to dry density, but inversely proportional to water content. Moreover, the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests were also performed to observe the pore size distribution and microstructure of the specimens. Finally, by using results of MIP and SEM tests, the compressibility and strength behaviours of Yan'an compacted loess are explained from the perspective of pore-size distribution and microstructure.

Key Words
water content; dry density; compression parameters; shear strength; microstructure

Address
Yexia Guo, Wankui Ni and Haisong Liu: School of Geology Engineering and Geomatics, Chang'an University, 710064 Xi'an, Shannxi Province, China

Abstract
Rock-socketed drilled shafts are widely used to transfer the heavy loads from the superstructure especially in mountainous area. Extensive research has been done on the behavior of rock-socketed drilled shafts under compressive load. However, little attention has been paid to uplift behavior of drilled shaft in rock, which govern the overall behavior of the foundation system. In this paper, a series of centrifuge tests have been performed to investigate the uplift response of rock-socketed drilled shafts. The pull-out tests of drilled shafts installed in layered rocks having various strengths were conducted. The load-displacement response, axial load distributions in the shaft and the unit skin friction distribution under pull-out loads were investigated. The effects of the strength of rock socket on the initial stiffness, ultimate capacity and mobilization of friction of the foundation, were also examined. The results indicated that characteristics of rock-socket has a significant influence on the uplift behavior of drilled shaft. Most of the applied uplift load were carried by socketed rock when the drilled shaft was installed in the sand over rock layer, whereas substantial load was carried by both upper and lower rock layers when the drilled shaft was completely socketed into layered rock. The pattern of mobilized shaft friction and point where the maximum unit shaft friction occurred were also found to be affected by the socket condition surrounding the drilled shaft.

Key Words
rock-socketed drilled shaft; uplift behavior; centrifuge modelling; rock

Address
Sunji Park: Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia

Jae-Hyun Kim: Department of Civil Engineering, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341, Republic of Korea

Seok-Jung Kim and Jae-Hyun Park: Department of Infrastructure Safety Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT), 283, Goyang-daero, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 10223, Republic of Korea

Ki-Seok Kwak: Underground Space Safety Research Center, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT), 283, Goyang-daero, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 10223, Republic of Korea

Dong-Soo Kim: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST),291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea


Abstract
Structural design of the vertical displacements and shear strains in the earth fill (EF) dams has great importance in the structural engineering problems. Moreover, far fault earthquakes have significant seismic effects on seismic damage performance of EF dams like the near fault earthquakes. For this reason, three dimensional (3D) earthquake damage performance of Oroville dam is assessed considering different far-fault ground motions in this study. Oroville Dam was built in United States of America-California and its height is 234.7 m (770 ft.). 3D model of Oroville dam is modelled using FLAC3D software based on finite difference approach. In order to represent interaction condition between discrete surfaces, special interface elements are used between dam body and foundation. Non-reflecting seismic boundary conditions (free field and quiet) are defined to the main surfaces of the dam for the nonlinear seismic analyses. 6 different far-fault ground motions are taken into account for the full reservoir condition of Oroville dam. According to nonlinear seismic analysis results, the effects of far-fault ground motions on the nonlinear seismic settlement and shear strain behaviour of Oroville EF dam are determined and evaluated in detail. It is clearly seen that far-fault earthquakes have very significant seismic effects on the settlement-shear strain behaviour of EF dams and these earthquakes create vital important seismic damages on the swelling behaviour of dam body surface. Moreover, it is proposed that far-fault ground motions should not be ignored while modelling EF dams.

Key Words
earth-fill dam; far-fault earthquake; free-field boundary condition; interaction condition; shear strain failure

Address
Memduh Karalar and Murat Cavusli: Department of Civil engineering, Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University Zonguldak, 67100, Turkey

Abstract
In this study, the pull-out behavior of a tunnel-type anchorage for suspension bridges was investigated using experimental tests and image processing analyses. The study focused on evaluating the initial failure behavior and failure mode of the tunnel-type anchorage. In order to evaluate the failure mode of tunnel-type anchorage, a series of scaled model tests were conducted based on the prototype anchorage of the Ulsan Grand Bridge. In the model tests, the anchorage body and surrounding rocks were fabricated using a gypsum mixture. The pull-out behavior was investigated under plane strain conditions. The results of the model tests demonstrate that the tunnel-type anchorage underwent a wedge-shaped failure. In addition, the failure mode changed according to the differences in the physical properties of the surrounding rock and the anchorage body and the size of the anchor plate. The size of the anchor plate was found to be an important parameter that determines the failure mode. However, the difference in physical properties between the surrounding rock and the anchorage body did not affect its size. In addition, this study analyzed the initial failure behavior of the tunnel-type anchorage through image analysis and confirmed that the failure was sequentially transferred from the inside of the tunnel to the surrounding rock according to the image analysis. The reasonable failure mode for the design of the tunnel-type anchorage should be wedge-type rather than pull-out type.

Key Words
tunnel-type anchorage; pull-out behavior; failure mode; image processing; scaled model test

Address
Seunghwan Seo, Hyungsung Lim and Moonkyung Chung: Department of Underground Space Safety Research Center, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT),
Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10223, Republic of Korea


Abstract
Water damage is one of the five disasters that affect the safety of coal mine production. The erosion of rocks by water is a very important link in the process of water inrush induced by fault activation. Through the observation and experiment of fault filling samples, according to the existing rock classification standards, fault sediments are divided into breccia, dynamic metamorphic schist and mudstone. Similar materials are developed with the characteristics of particle size distribution, cementation strength and water rationality, and then relevant tests and analyses are carried out. The experimental results show that the water-rock interaction mainly reduces the compressive strength, mechanical strength, cohesion and friction Angle of similar materials, and cracks or deformations are easy to occur under uniaxial load, which may be an important process of water inrush induced by fault activation. Mechanical experiment of similar material specimen can not only save time and cost of large scale experiment, but also master the direction and method of the experiment. The research provides a new idea for the failure process of rock structure in fault activation water inrush.

Key Words
underground engineering; rock engineering; fault structure; filling media; similar materials; water-rock interaction; mechanical properties

Address
Dong Faxu, Peng Zhang, Wenbin Sun, Shaoliang Zhou and Lingjun Kong: State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control,College of Energy and Mining Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China


Abstract
Pre-drainage of groundwater in the roof aquifer by boreholes is the main method for prevention of roof water disaster, and the drop in the water level during the drainage leads to the variation of the local stress in the overlying strata. Based on a multitude of boreholes for groundwater drainage from aquifer above the 1303 mining face of Longyun Coal Mine, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are used to investigate the local stress variation in the process of borehole drainage. The results show that due to the drop in the water level of the roof aquifer during the drainage, the stress around the borehole gradually evolved. From the center of the borehole to the outside, a stress-relaxed zone, a stress-elevated zone, and a stress-recovered zone are sequentially formed. Along with the expansion of drainage influence, the stress peak in the stress-elevated zone also moves to the outside. When the radius of influence develops to the maximum, the stress peak position no longer moves outward. When the coal mining face advances to the drainage influence range, the abutment pressure in front of the mining face is superimposed with the high local stress around the borehole, which increases the risk of stress concentration. The present study provides a reference for the stress concentration caused by borehole drainage, which can be potentially utilized in the optimal arrangement of drainage boreholes in underground mining.

Key Words
mine water disaster; drainage; borehole; radius of influence; stress concentration

Address
Jianli Shao, Wenquan Zhang, Zaiyong Wang and Xintao Wu: State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China

Qi Zhang: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305, U.S.A.


Abstract
Shallow tunnels are vulnerable to earthquakes, and shallow ground is usually inhomogeneous. Based on the limit equilibrium method and variational principle, a solution for the seismic collapse mechanism of shallow tunnel in inhomogeneous ground is presented. And the finite difference method is employed to compare with the analytical solution. It shows that the analytical results are conservative when the horizontal and vertical stresses equal the static earth pressure and zero at vault section, respectively. The safety factor of shallow tunnel changes greatly during an earthquake. Hence, the cyclic loading characteristics should be considered to evaluate tunnel stability. And the curve sliding surface agrees with the numerical simulation and previous studies. To save time and ensure accuracy, the curve sliding surface with 2 undetermined constants is a good choice to analyze shallow tunnel stability. Parameter analysis demonstrates that the horizontal semiaxis, acceleration, ground cohesion and homogeneity affect tunnel stability greatly, and the horizontal semiaxis, vertical semiaxis, tunnel depth and ground homogeneity have obvious influence on tunnel sliding surface. It concludes that the most applicable approaches to enhance tunnel stability are reducing the horizontal semiaxis, strengthening cohesion and setting the tunnel into good ground.

Key Words
shallow tunnel; seismic collapse; inhomogeneous ground; limit analysis; variational principle

Address
Zihong Guo and Zhanyuan Zhu: 1.) College of Civil Engineering, Sichuan Agricultural University, Dujiangyan, Sichuan, 611830, China
2.) Sichuan Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Rural Construction Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Dujiangyan, 611830, China

Xinrong Liu: School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China



Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2021 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-2-736-6800 (GAE, EAS, WAS, ANR), +82-42-828-7995 (SEM, SCS, SSS) Fax : +82-2-736-6801, Email: info@techno-press.com