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CONTENTS
Volume 10, Number 4, April 2016
 

Abstract
In this paper, an integrated model for the wave (current)-induced seabed response is presented. The present model consists of two parts: hydrodynamic model for wave-current interactions and poro-elastic seabed model for pore accumulations. In the wave-current model, based on the fifth-order wave theory, ocean waves were generated by adding a source function into the mass conservation equation. Then, currents were simulated through imposing a steady inlet velocity on one domain and pressure outlet on the other side. In addition, both of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokers (RANS) Equations and k-ε turbulence model would be applied in the fluid field. Once the wave pressures on the seabed calculated through the wave-current interaction model, it would be applied to be boundary conditions on the seabed model. In the seabed model, the poro-elastic theory would be imposed to simulate the seabed soil response. After comparing with the experimental data, the effect of currents on the seabed response would be examined by emphasize on the residual mechanisms of the pore pressure inside the soil. The build-up of the pore water pressure and the resulted liquefaction phenomenon will be fully investigated. A parametric study will also be conducted to examine the effects of waves and currents as well as soil properties on the pore pressure accumulation.

Key Words
waves and currents; poro-elastic; pore pressure accumulation; liquefaction

Address
(1) Y. Zhang, D.-S. Jeng:Department of Civil Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China;
(2) D.-S. Jeng, H.-Y. Zhao:
Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, QLD 4222, Australia;
(3) J.-S. Zhang:
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098, China.

Abstract
The paper deals with the results of the laboratory cyclic plate load tests performed on the reinforced soft clay beds. The performances of the clay bed reinforced with geocells and geocells with additional basal geogrid cases are compared with the performance of the unreinforced clay beds. From the cyclic plate load test results, the coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu) was calculated for the different cases. The Cu value was found to increase in the presence of geocell reinforcement. The maximum increase in the Cu value was observed in the case of the clay bed reinforced with the combination of geocell and geogrid. In addition, 3 times increase in the strain modulus, 10 times increase in the bearing capacity, 8 times increase in the stiffness and 90% reduction in the settlement was observed in the presence of the geocell and geogrid. Based on the laboratory test results, a hypothetical case of a prototype foundation subjected to cyclic load was analyzed. The results revealed that the natural frequency of the foundation-soil system increases by 4 times and the amplitude of the vibration reduces by 92% in the presence of the geocells and the geogrids.

Key Words
geocells; cyclic plate load test; coefficient of elastic uniform compression; natural frequency; bearing capacity

Address
(1) A. Hegde:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Patna 801103, India;
(2) T.G. Sitharam:
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

Abstract
Currently, there is a great interest in the coupling between multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical effects in hydrocarbon reservoirs and surrounding rocks. The ideal solution for this coupled problem is to introduce the geomechanical effects through the stress analysis solution and implement an algorithm, which assures that the equations governing the flow and stress analyses are obeyed in each time step. This paper deals with the implementation of a program (FORTRAN90 interface code), which was developed to couple conventional reservoir (ECLIPSE) and geomechanical (ABAQUS) simulators, using a partial coupling algorithm. The explicit coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of Iranian field during depletion and CO2 injection is studied using the soils consolidation procedure available in ABAQUS. Time dependent reservoir pressure fields obtained from three dimensional compositional reservoir models were transferred into finite element reservoir geomechanical models in ABAQUS as multi-phase flow in deforming reservoirs cannot be performed within ABAQUS. The FEM analysis of the reservoir showed no sign of plastic strain under production and CO2 injection scenarios in any part of the reservoir and the stress paths do not show a critical behavior.

Key Words
coupled; hydro-mechanical; FEM; plastic strain; stress path

Address
(1) Ayub Elyasi, Kamran Goshtasbi:
Department of Mining Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Hamid Hashemolhosseini:
Department of Mining Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract
Wellbore instability problem is one of the main problems that met frequently during drilling, particularly in high temperature, high pressure (HPHT) formations. There are large amount of researches about wellbore stability in HPHT formations, which based on the thermo-poroelastic theory and some achievements were obtained; however, few studies have investigated on the fully coupled thermo-poroelastoplasticity analysis of wellbore stability, especially the analysis of wellbore stability while the filter cake formed. Therefore, it is very necessary to do some work. In this paper, the three-dimensional wellbore stability model which overall considering the effects of fully coupled thermo-poroelastoplasticity and filter cake is established based on the finite element method and Drucker- Prager failure criterion. The distribution of pore pressure, wellbore stress and plastic deformation under the conditions of different mud pressures, times and temperatures have been discussed. The results obtained in this paper can offer a great help on understanding the distribution of pore pressure and wellbore stress of wellbore in the HPHT formation for drilling engineers.

Key Words
wellbore stability; numerical simulation; filter cake; temperature; permeate; fully coupled

Address
School of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China.


Abstract
In ballasted railway tracks, ballast fouling due to finer material intrusion has been identified as a challenging issue in track maintenance works. In this research, deformation characteristics of crushed stone-sand mixtures, simulating fresh and fouled ballasts were studied from laboratory and a 3-D discrete element method (DEM) triaxial compression tests. The DEM simulation was performed using a recently developed DEM approach, named, Yet Another Dynamic Engine (YADE). First, void ratio characteristics of crushed stone-sand mixtures were studied. Then, triaxial compression tests were conducted on specimens with 80 and 50% of relative densities simulating dense and loose states respectively. Initial DEM simulations were conducted using sphere particles. As stress-strain behaviour of crushed stone-sand mixtures evaluated by sphere particles were different from laboratory specimens, in next DEM simulations, the particles were modeled by a clump particle. The clump shape was selected using shape indexes of the actual particles evaluated by an image analysis. It was observed that the packing behaviour of laboratory crushed stone-sand mixtures were matched well with the DEM simulation with clump particles. The results also showed that the strength properties of crushed stone deteriorate when they are mixed by 30% or more of sand, specially under dense state. The results also showed that clump particles give closer stress-strain behaviour to laboratory specimens than sphere particles.

Key Words
discrete element method; fouled ballast; railway track; stress-strain behaviour; triaxial test

Address
(1) Janaka J. Kumara:
Department of Civil Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 2641, Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan;
(2) Kimitoshi Hayano:
Department of Urban Innovation, Yokohama National University, 79-5, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501, Japan.

Abstract
In order to investigate water flow characteristics after inrushing in process of karst tunnel excavation, numerical simulations for five case studies of water inrush from the tunnel floor are carried out by using the FLUENT software on the background of Qiyueshan high risk karst tunnel. Firstly, the velocity-distance curves and pressure-distance curves are drawn by selecting a series of probing lines in a plane. Then, the variation characteristics of velocity and pressure are analyzed and the respective optimized escape routes are made. Finally, water flow characteristics after inrushing from the tunnel floor are discussed and summarized by comparing case studies under the conditions of different water-inrush positions and excavation situations. The results show that: (1) Tunnel constructors should first move to the tunnel side wall and then escape quickly when water inrush happens. (2) Tunnel constructors must not stay at the intersection area of the cross passage and tunnels when escaping. (3) When water inrush from floor happens in the left tunnel, if tunnel constructors meet the cross passage during escaping, they should pass through it rapidly, turn to the right tunnel and run to the entrance. (4) When water inrush from floor happens in the left tunnel, if there is not enough time to escape, tunnel constructors can run to the trolley and other equipment in the vicinity of the right tunnel working face. In addition, some rescuing equipment can be set up at the high location of the cross passage. (5) When water inrush from floor happens in the cross passage, tunnel constructors should move to the tunnel side wall quickly, turn to the tunnel without water inrush and run to the entrance. (6) When water inrush from floor happens in the cross passage, if there is not enough time to escape, tunnel constructors can run to the trolley and other equipment near by the left or the right tunnel working face. The results are of important practical significance and engineering value to ensure the safety of tunnel construction.

Key Words
water inrush; velocity; pressure; flow characteristic; optimized escape routes; karst tunnel

Address
Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250061, Shandong, China.


Abstract
This paper discusses improvements of compressibility, permeability, static and liquefaction strengths of in-situ soils by grouting. Both field testing and laboratory evaluation of the on-site samples were conducted. The improvement of soils was influenced by two main factors, i.e., the grout materials and the injection mechanisms introduced by the field grouting. On-site grout mapping revealed the major mechanism was fracturing accompanied with some permeation at deeper zones of sandy soils, where long-gel time suspension grout and solution grout were applied. The study found the compressibility and swelling potential of CL soils at a 0.5 m distance to grout hole could be reduced by 25% and 50%, respectively, due to the grouting. The effect on hydraulic conductivity of the CL soils appeared insignificant. The grouting slightly improved the cohesion of the CL soils by 10~15 kPa, and the friction angle appeared unaffected. The grouting had also improved the cohesion of the on-site SM soils by 10~90 kPa, while influences on the friction angle of soils were uncertain. Liquefaction resistances could be enhanced for the sandy soils within a 2~3 m extent to the grout hole. Average improvements of 40% and 20% on the liquefaction resistance were achievable for the sandy soils for earthquake magnitudes of 6 and ≥ 7.5, respectively, by the grouting.

Key Words
ground improvement; geotechnical properties; soil grouting; laboratory testing; field testing

Address
Construction Engineering Department, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, Taiwan.


Abstract
This paper describes a geotechnical field investigation in Giresun hazelnut licenced warehause and spot exchange during twelve months to determine the soil profile and static project applicability. It is also aimed to determine the superstructure loads and evaluate the relevance of foundation filling materials of the main, laboratory, package and admin buildings. The main building has 88.50×63.20 (5593.2) m2 site area. It has a big raft foundation. Eleven geotechnical reports were prepared between 2 December 2014 and 25 May 2015. Maximum settlements and safe bearing capacities were calculated to decide to be able to proceed to the next step. Also, the detail observations and evaluations were presented from October 2014 to December 2014. It has been seen that the foundation is designed as a single foundation one. But, in the light of observations, it has been evaluated that the foundation project for package building is not adequate, and after these excavations it must be revised as a raft foundation. The thickness of foundation and structural details should be defined/drawn after analyzing the details by using a special software. Construction joints should be designed between different buildings interfaces to avoid damages and cracks with in different settlements. The environmental drainage must be projected and applied to avoid the probable damage of surface waters on foundations.

Key Words
environmental drainagel foundation; geotechnical field investigation; safe bearing capacities

Address
Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey.



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