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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 1, March 2017
 

Abstract
The world today has reached a certain level where it is impossible to get the quality education at the tertiary level without the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). ICT has made life better, communication easier and faster, teaching and learning more practical through computers and other technology based learning tools. However, despite these benefits ICT has equally contributed immensely to environmental problems. Therefore there is the need to use ICT resources efficiently in universities for environmental sustainability so as to save both the university environment and the world at large from the effects of global warming. This paper evaluates the carbon footprints from the use of ICT devices and comes up with a proposed green ICT framework to reduce the carbon footprints in universities. The framework contains techniques and approaches to achieve greenness in the data center, personal computers (PCs) and monitors, and printing in order to make ICT more environmentally friendly, cheaper, safer and ultimately more efficient. Concerned experts in their respective departments at Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation (APU) Malaysia evaluated the proposed framework. It was found to be effective for achieving efficiency, reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions.

Key Words
green ICT; environmental sustainability; green practices; carbon footprints; data center

Address
Mueen Uddin: Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Safiya Okai: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria
Tanzila Saba: College of Computer and Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
The roles of Na, Mn, W and silica, and the synergistic effects between each metal in the Mn-Na2WO4/SiO2 catalyst have been investigated for oxidative coupling of methane (OCM). The crystallisation of amorphous silica during calcination at 900oC was promoted primarily by Na, but Mn and W also facilitated this process. The interaction between Na and Mn tended to increase the extent of conversion of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3. The formation of Na2WO4 was dependent on the order in which Na and W were introduced to the catalyst. The impregnation of W before Na resulted in the formation of Na2WO4, but this did not occur when the impregnation order was reversed. MnWO4 formed in all cases where Mn and W were introduced into the silica support, regardless of the impregnation order; however, the formation of MnWO4 was inhibited in the presence of Na. Of the prepared samples in which a single metal oxide was introduced to silica, only Mn/SiO2 showed OCM activity with significant oxygen conversion, thus demonstrating the important role that Mn plays in promoting oxygen transfer in the reaction. The impregnation order of W and Na is critical for catalyst performance. The active site, which involves a combination of Na-Si-W-O, can be formed in situ when distorted WO42- interacts with silica during the crystallisation process facilitated by Na. This can only occur if the impregnation of W occurs before Na addition, or if the two components are introduced simultaneously.

Key Words
oxidative coupling of methane; Mn-Na2WO4/SiO2; synergy

Address
Liangguang Tang, Woo Jin Lee, Jim Patel and Ken Chiang: CSIRO Energy, Private Bag 10, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
Jonghyun Choi: The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, Waikato, New Zealand

Abstract
In the present study, PV/T collector was modeled via analysis of governing equations and physics of the problem. Specifications of solar radiation were computed based on geographical characteristics of the location and the corresponding time. Temperature of the collector plate was calculated as a function of time using the energy equations and temperature behavior of the photovoltaic cell was incorporated in the model with the aid of curve fitting. Subsequently, operational range for reaching to maximal efficiency was studied using Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique. Optimization was performed by defining an objective function based on equivalent value of electrical and thermal energies. Optimal values for equipment components were determined. The optimal value of water flow rate was approximately 1 gallon per minute (gpm). The collector angle was around 50 degrees, respectively. By selecting the optimal values of parameters, efficiency of photovoltaic collector was improved about 17% at initial moments of collector operation. Efficiency increase was around 5% at steady condition. It was demonstrated that utilization of photovoltaic collector can improve efficiency of solar energy-based systems.

Key Words
solar energy; PV/T collector; photovoltaic cell; genetic algorithm; optimization

Address
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Behzad Farshin: Department of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Conversion, Islamic Azad University, Boroujerd Sciences and Researches Branch, Iran

M. A. Ehyaei: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis New City, Iran

Abstract
Electricity is basic need for country development. But at the present time proper planning and policy is require at high pace for power generation network extension due to the increasing population growth rate. Present study aimed to analyze the present and future demand for electricity at household level in Province of Balochistan of Pakistan via simulation modeling. Data of year 2004-2005 was used as baseline data for electricity consumption to predict future demand of electricity at both rural and urban domestic level up to subsequent 30 years, with help of LEAP software. Basically three scenarios were created to run software. One scenario was Business-As-Usual and other two were green scenarios i.e., solar and wind energy scenarios. Results predicted that by using alternative energy sources, demand for electricity will be fulfill and will also reduce burden on non-renewable energy sources due to the greater potential for solar and wind energy present in Balochistan.

Key Words
demand and supply; electricity; households; LEAP; solar energy; wind energy

Address
Rabail Urooj and Sheikh Saeed Ahmad: Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, The Mall Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
The latest UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) show that mean daily temperatures will increase everywhere in the United Kingdom. This will significantly affect the thermal and energy performance of the current building stock. This study examines an institutional fully glazed building and looks into the changes in the cooling loads and thermal comfort of the occupants during the occupied hours of the non-heating period. Furthermore, it investigates the effect of relative humidity (RH) on thermal comfort. The Design Summer Year (DSY) 2003 for London Heathrow has been used as a baseline for this study and the DSY 2050s High Emissions scenario was used to examine the performance of the building under future weather conditions. Results show a 21% increase of the cooling loads between the two examined scenarios. Thermal comfort appears to be slightly improved during the months of May and September and marginally worsen during the summer months. Results of the simulation show that a relative humidity control at 40% can improve the thermal comfort for 53% of the occupied hours. A comparison of the thermal comfort performance during the hottest week of the year, shows that when the relative humidity control is applied thermal comfort performance of the 2050s is similar or better compared to the thermal comfort performance under the baseline.

Key Words
thermal comfort; relative humidity; energy consumption

Address
Athanasios Lykartsis and Ali B-Jahromi: Department of Civil and Built Environment, School of Computing and Technology, University of West London, W5 5RF, London, UK
Anastasia Mylona: Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, SW12 9BS, London, UK

Abstract
The main objective of load frequency control (LFC) is to keep the frequency value at nominal value and force deviation of the frequency to zero in case of load change. This paper suggests LFC by using a model predictive control (MPC), based on Integral Square Error (ISE) method designed to optimize the damping of oscillations in a two-area power system. The MPC is designed and simulated with a model system in state space, for robust performance in the system response. The proposed MPC is tuned by ISE to achieve superior efficiency. Moreover, its performance has been assessed and compared with the PI and PID conventional controllers. The settling time and overshoot with MPC are extremely minimized as compared with conventional controllers.

Key Words
load frequency control; model predictive control; integral square error technique

Address
Ahmed M. Kassem and Khairy Sayed: Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sohag University, 82524, Sohag, Egypt
Emad H. El-Zohri and Hossam H. Ali: Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Sohag University, 82524, Sohag, Egypt



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