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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 2, June 2014
 

Abstract
This paper\'s aim is to do a global evaluation (considering four dimensions: technical-economic, environmental, social and political) in the ways of natural gas transportation (gas pipelines, GNL and GTL) and electric transmission, in order to supply the energy demands of Mato Grosso do Sul, a brazilian state. The transport ways had been compared between itself using a software of decision taking (Decision Lens Suite), which determined a better way for transporting natural gas in this case. In a generalized manner the gas pipeline is the best way of transporting natural gas, therefore it takes advantage in the majority of the analyzed dimensions.

Key Words
energy; integrated energy resources planning; natural gas; electricity; full cost FCAount

Address
Miguel E.M. Udaeta, Pascoal H.C Rigolin, Geraldo F. Burani
and Luiz C.R. Galvao: Energy Group of the Electrical Energy and Automation Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo, SP, 05508-010, Brazil

Abstract
Fuel cells of proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC) working with hydrogen in the anode and ambient air in the cathode („air breathing‟) have been prepared and characterized. The cells have been studied with variable thickness of the cathode catalyst layer (LCL), maintaining constant the platinum and ionomer loads. Polarization curves and electrochemical active area measurements have been carried out. The polarization curves are analyzed in terms of a model for a flooded passive air breathing cathode. The analysis shows that LCL affects to electrochemical kinetics and mass transport processes inside the electrode, as reflected by two parameters of the polarization curves: the Tafel slope and the internal resistance. The observed decrease in Tafel slope with decreasing LCL shows improvements in the oxygen reduction kinetics which we attribute to changes in the catalyst layer structure. A decrease in the internal resistance with LCL is attributed to lower protonic resistance of thinner catalyst layers, although the observed decrease is lower than expected probably because the electronic conduction starts to be hindered by more hydrophilic character and thicker ionomer film.

Key Words
fuel cell; PEMFC; hydrogen; oxygen reduction; portable application

Address
Paloma Ferreira-Aparicio and Antonio M. Chaparro: Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Abstract
Small Hydro-Power (SHP) is an environmental friendly technology. Usually hydro power generation projects are viewed as constructing large dams and reservoirs but available new research and engineering techniques have helped hydro power generation without large dams and without large reservoirs. In India, there are several water installations, irrigation dams, canals, streams or running rivers not tapped to generate power. In these cases the existing system and facilities can help in generating power with less investment and time. This area is yet unexplored. Harnessing a stream for hydroelectric power is a major undertaking for the energy crises and the global issues to go green. In this technical note a potential site for mini hydro power plant nearby Shoolini University is identified and examined for the economic feasibility.

Key Words
hydro energy; energy power; renewable energy

Address
Anil Pundir and Anil Kumar: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Abstract
A co-spray deposition technique has been developed to bypass a fundamental limitation in the conventional spray deposition technique, i.e., the deposition of metal oxides from incompatible precursors in the starting solution. With this technique, ZnO films codoped with F and Al have been successfully synthesized, in which F is incompatible with Al. Two starting solutions were prepared and co-sprayed through two separate spray heads. One solution contained only the F precursor, NH4F. The second solution contained the Zn and Al precursors, Zn(O2CCH3)2 and AlCl3. The deposition was carried out at 500

Key Words
spray deposition; ZnO; doping; transparent conducting oxide

Address
Bin Zhou, Xiaofei Han and Meng Tao: School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA

Abstract
The paper is devoted to fabrication and investigation of structural, morphological and performance characteristics of novel TiO2/PS/Si, Au/TiO2/PS/Si and Au/PS/Si direct ammonia fuel cells (DAFC) using nanoporous silicon (PS) as proton conducting membrane (instead of traditional polymer Nafion membrane) and TiO2, Au/TiO2 or Au as catalyst layer. Porous silicon layers have been prepared by electrochemical modification of silicon substrates. Films containing titanium dioxide are more efficient catalysts for hydrogen production from ammonia solution. The Au/TiO2/PS/Si cell exhibited the open circuit voltage 0.87 V and performance of 1.6 mW/cm2 with 50 % ammonia solution as fuel at room temperature. Mechanisms of proton transport in nanoporous silicon membrane and generation of electricity in DAFC have been considered. Advantages of investigated direct ammonia fuel cells in compared with direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) consist in simplicity and low cost of fabrication technology of nanoporous silicon and titanium dioxide catalyst layers which can be integrated into standard silicon micro fabrication processes and operation of cells at room temperature. The work demonstrates that the PS based fuel cells have potential for portable applications.

Key Words
Nanoporous silicon membrane; fuel cell; Au/TiO2 catalyst; ammonia electrolyte; power density; PACS: 88:30-k

Address
Tayyar D. Dzhafarov: Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, AZ-1143 Baku, Azerbaijan
Sureyya Aydin Yuksel and Mustafa Aydin: Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey



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