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CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 6, December 2015
 

Abstract


Key Words


Address


Abstract
A frequency-domain method is developed for evaluating the earthquake input energy to two building structures connected by viscous dampers. It is shown that the earthquake input energies to respective building structures and viscous connecting dampers can be defined as works done by the boundary forces between the subsystems on their corresponding displacements. It is demonstrated that the proposed energy transfer function is very useful for clear understanding of dependence of energy consumption ratios in respective buildings and connecting viscous dampers on their properties. It can be shown that the area of the energy transfer function for the total system is constant regardless of natural period and damping ratio because the constant Fourier amplitude of the input acceleration, relating directly the area of the energy transfer function to the input energy, indicates the Dirac delta function and only an initial velocity (kinetic energy) is given in this case. Owing to the constant area property of the energy transfer functions, the total input energy to the overall system including both buildings and connecting viscous dampers is approximately constant regardless of the quantity of connecting viscous dampers. This property leads to an advantageous feature that, if the energy consumption in the connecting viscous dampers increases, the input energies to the buildings can be reduced drastically. For the worst case analysis, critical excitation problems with respect to the impulse interval for double impulse (simplification of pulse-type impulsive ground motion) and multiple impulses (simplification of long-duration ground motion) are considered and their solutions are provided.

Key Words
earthquake input energy; frequency-domain analysis; time-domain analysis; energy transfer function; connected buildings; passive structural control; impulsive ground motion; long- duration ground motion; critical excitation

Address
Department of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Kyoto University Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan

Abstract
This paper focuses on presenting modeling considerations and insight into the performance of typical straight, curved, and skewed box-girder bridges in California which form the bulk of the bridge inventory in the state. Three case study bridges are chosen: Meloland Road Overpass, Northwest Connector of Interstate 10/215 Interchange, and Painter Street Overpass, having straight, curved, and skewed superstructures, respectively. The efficacy of nonlinear dynamic analysis is established by comparing the response from analytical models to the recorded strong motion data. Finally insights are provided on the component behavioral characteristics and shift in vulnerability for each of the bridge types considered.

Key Words
straight, curved, skewed box-girder bridge; numerical model; model validation; component behavior; fragility

Address
Karthik Ramanathan: AIR Worldwide, 131 Dartmouth Street, Boston, MA 02116, USA

Jong-Su Jeon, Reginald DesRoches: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 790 Atlantic Drive, GA 30332, USA

Behzad Zakeri: Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA

Jamie E. Padgett: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA

Abstract
In this paper, an analytical method is proposed to study the effect of crack and axial load on vibration behavior and stability of the cracked columns. Using the local flexibility model, the crack has been simulated by a torsional spring with connecting two segments of column in crack location. By solving governing eigenvalue equation, the effects of crack parameters and axial load on the natural frequencies and buckling load as well as buckling load are investigated. The results show that the presents of crack cause to reduction in natural frequencies and buckling load whereas this reduction is affected by the location and depth of the crack. Furthermore, the tensile and compressive axial load increase and decrease the natural frequencies, respectively. In addition, as the compression load approaches to certain value, the fundamental natural frequency reaches zero and instability occurs. The accuracy of the model is validated through the experimental data reported in the literature.

Key Words
cracked column; stability; critical buckling load; natural frequency; vibration analysi

Address
Masoud Ghaderi: Department of Civil Engineering, Ghermi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ghermi, Iran

Hosein Ghaffarzadeh: Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Vahid A. Maleki: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of high-rise reinforced concrete (RC) box-type wall structures commonly used for most residential buildings in Korea. For this purpose, an analytical model was calibrated with the results of the earthquake simulation tests on a 1:5 scale 10-story distorted model. This calibrated model was then transformed to a true model. The performance of the true model in terms of the stiffness, strength, and damage distribution through inelastic energy dissipation was observed with reference to the earthquake simulation test results. The model showed high overstrength factors ranging from 3 to 4. The existence of slab in this box-type wall system changed the main resistance mode in the wall from bending moment to tension/compression coupled moment through membrane actions, and increased the overall resistance capacity by about 25~35%, in comparison with the common design practice of neglecting the slab´s existence. The flexibility of foundation, which is also commonly neglected in the engineering design, contributes to 30~50% of the roof drift in the stiff direction containing many walls. The possibility of concrete spalling and reinforcement buckling and fracture under the maximum considered earthquake (MCE) in Korea appears to be very low when compared with the case of the 2010 Concepcion, Chile earthquake.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; earthquake simulation test; wall; slab; membrane action

Address
School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-713, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In recent decades, wavelet transforms as a strong signal processing tool have attracted attention of researchers for damage identification. Apart from the wide application of wavelet transforms for damage identification, influence of higher order modes on the quality of damage detection has been a challenging matter for researchers. In this study, influence of higher order modes and different mass configurations on the quality of damage detection through Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) was studied. Nine different damage scenarios were imposed to four cantilever structures having different mass configurations. The first four mode shapes of the cantilever structures were measured experimentally and analyzed by DWT. A damage index was defined in order to study the influence of higher order modes. Results of this study showed that change in the mass configuration had a great impact on the quality of damage detection even when the changes altered natural frequencies slightly. It was observed that for successful damage detection all available mode shapes should be taken into account and measured mode shapes had no significant priority for damage detection over each other.

Key Words
damage detection; discrete wavelet transform; cantilever structures; higher order modes; mass configuration

Address
Mohammadreza Vafaei: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Center for Forensic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Johor, Malaysia

Sophia C Alih: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Noise and Vibration, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Johor, Malaysia

Abstract
The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) columns made from high strength materials was investigated experimentally. Six high-strength concrete specimen columns (1:4 scale), which included three with high-strength transverse reinforcing bars and three with normal-strength transverse reinforcement, were tested under double curvature bending load. The effects of yielding strength and ratio of transverse reinforcement on the cracking patterns, hysteretic response, shear strength, ductility, strength reduction, energy dissipation and strain of reinforcement were studied. The test results indicated that all specimens failed in splitting failure, and specimens with high-strength transverse reinforcement exhibited better seismic performance than those with normal-strength transverse reinforcement. It also demonstrated that the strength of high-strength lateral reinforcing bars was fully utilized at the ultimate displacements. Shear strength formula of short concrete columns, which experienced a splitting failure, was proposed based on the Chinese concrete code. To enhance the applicability of the model, it was corroborated with 47 short concrete columns selected from the literature available. The results indicated that, the proposed method can give better predictions of shear strength for short columns that experienced a splitting failure than other shear strength models of ACI 318 and Chinese concrete codes.

Key Words
high-strength concrete columns; high-strength transverse reinforcement; splitting failure; quasi-static test; seismic behavior; strain of reinforcement; shear strength

Address
School of Civil Engineering, Xi´an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi´an, China

Abstract
It is widely recognized that the preferred yielding mechanism for a hybrid coupled wall structure is that all coupling beams over the height of the structure yield in shear prior to formation of plastic hinges in structural walls. The objective of the study is to provide feasible approaches that are able to promote the preferred seismic performance of hybrid coupled walls. A new design methodology is suggested for this purpose. The coupling ratio, which represents the contribution of coupling beams to the resistance of system overturning moment, is employed as a fundamental design parameter. A series of nonlinear time history analyses on various representative hybrid coupled walls are carried out to examine the adequacy of the design methodology. While the proposed design method is shown to be able to facilitate the desired yielding mechanism in hybrid coupled walls, it is also able to reduce the adverse effects caused by the current design guidelines on the structural design and performance. Furthermore, the analysis results reveal that the state-of-the-art coupled wall design guidelines could produce a coupled wall structure failing to adequately exhaust the energy dissipation capacity of coupling beams before walls yield.

Key Words
coupled structural walls; inelastic behavior; seismic performance; yielding mechanism; structural design

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, University Rd, Tainan, Taiwan

Abstract
JK wall is a shear wall made of lightweight EPS mortar and reinforced with a 3-D galvanized steel mesh, called JK panel, and truss-like stiffeners, called JK stiffeners. Earlier studies have shown that low strength lightweight concrete has the potential to be used in structural elements. In this study, seismic contribution of the JK infill walls surrounded by steel frames is numerically investigated. Adopting a hybrid numerical model, behavior envelop of the wall is derived from the general purpose finite element software, Abaqus. Obtained backbone would be implemented in the professional analytical software, SAP2000, in which through calibrated hysteretic parameters, cyclic behavior of the JK infill can be simulated. Through comparison with earlier experimental results, it turned out that the proposed hybrid modeling can simulate monotonic and cyclic behavior of JK walls with good accuracy. JK infills have a panel-type configuration which their dominant failure mode would be ductile in flexure. Finally technical and economical advantages of the proposed JK infills are assessed for two representative multistory buildings. It is revealed that JK infills can reduce maximum inter-story drifts as well as residual drifts at the expense of minor increase in the developed base shear.

Key Words
infill walls; JK wall; EPS concrete; lightweight concrete; hysteretic behavior

Address
Seyed Mehdi Zahrai, Seyed Amin Mousavi: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Behnam Gholipour Khalili: Kish International branch of the University of Tehran, Kish, Iran

Abstract
This study investigates the seismic energy dissipation capacity of a hybrid passive damper composed of a friction and a hysteretic slit damper. The capacity of the hybrid device required to satisfy a given target performance of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed with reduced design base shear is determined based on the ASCE/SEI 7-10 process, and the seismic performances of the structures designed without and with the hybrid dampers are verified by nonlinear dynamic analyses. Fragility analysis is carried out to investigate the probability of a specified limit state to be reached. The analysis results show that in the structure with hybrid dampers the residual displacements are generally reduced and the dissipated inelastic energy is mostly concentrated on the dampers. At the Moderate to Extensive damage states the fragility turned out to be smallest in the structure with the hybrid dampers.

Key Words
hybrid dampers; slit dampers; friction dampers; seismic performance; fragility analysis

Address
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, Suwon, Korea

Abstract
The self-centering prestressed concrete (SCPC) bridge pier with external dissipators is a novel structure, aiming at reducing residual deformation and facilitating the post-earthquake repair. This paper presents the configuration and mechanical behaviors of the pier. A theoretical model for the lateral force-displacement relationship under cyclic loading is developed. The proposed model comprises an iterative procedure which describes the deformation of dissipators under different conditions. Equations of pier stiffness after gap opening, as well as the equivalent viscous damping ratio, etc., are derived based on the proposed model. Existing cyclic load test results were used to validate the proposed model, and good agreement is observed between the analytical and test results.

Key Words
theoretical analysis; self-centering; concrete pier; external dissipat

Address
Tong Guo: Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, P. R. China

Zhiliang Cao, Zhenkuan Xu and Shuo Lu: School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, P. R. China

Abstract
Seismic upgrading of existing structures is a technical and social issue aimed at risk reduction. Sustainable design is one of the most important challenges in any structural project. Nowadays, many retrofit strategies are feasible and several traditional and innovative options are available to engineers. Basically, the design strategy can lead to increase structural ductility, strength, or both of them, but also stiffness regulation and supplemental damping are possible strategies to reduce seismic vulnerability. Each design solution has different technical and economical performances. In this paper, four different design solutions are presented for the retrofit of an existing RC frame with poor concrete quality and inadequate reinforcement detailing. The considered solutions are based on FRP wrapping of the existing structural elements or alternatively on new RC shear walls introduction. This paper shows the comparison among the considered design strategies in order to select the suitable solution, which reaches the compromise between the obtained safety level and costs during the life-cycle of the building. Each solution is worked out by considering three different levels of seismic demand. The structural capacity of the considered retrofit solutions is assessed with nonlinear static analysis and the seismic performance is evaluated with the capacity spectrum method.

Key Words
sustainable strategies for engineering; minimum cost optimization; pushover analysis; capacity spectrum method; existing concrete buildings; seismic retrofit; FRP strengthening; ETS strengthening; shear walls

Address
Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Ital


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