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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 5, May 2015
 

Abstract
Recently, two energy-based response parameters, i.e., the absolute and the relative elastic input energy equivalent velocity, have been receiving a lot of research attention. Several studies, in fact, have demonstrated the potential of these intensity measures in the prediction of the seismic structural response. Although some ground motion prediction equations have been developed for these parameters, they only provide marginal distributions without information about the joint occurrence of the spectral values at different periods. In order to build new prediction models for the two equivalent velocities, a large set of ground motion records is used to calculate the correlation coefficients between the response spectral values corresponding to different periods and components of the ground motion. Then, functional forms adopted in models from the literature are calibrated to fit the obtained data. A new functional form is proposed to improve the predictions of the considered models from the literature. The components of the ground motion considered in this study are the two horizontal ones only. Potential uses of the proposed equations in addition to the prediction of the correlation coefficients of the equivalent velocity spectral values are shown, such as the prediction of derived intensity measures and the development of conditional mean spectra.

Key Words
correlation coefficient; input energy equivalent velocity spectra; conditional mean spectrum

Address
Yin Cheng, Andrea Lucchini and Fabrizio Mollaioli: Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Gramsci 53, Rome, Italy

Abstract
In this study, earthquake loads are investigated statistically and compared with the nominal earthquake loads calculated according to the Turkish Earthquake Code, namely: “Specifications for Structures to be Built in Earthquake Areas”. For this purpose, the “actual” mean load values estimated from statistical methods and the nominal load values computed according the Seismic Code are compared, with respect to some variations in the basic parameters, such as the importance factor, building height, site coefficient, seismic zone and seismic load reduction factor. In addition to the data compiled from different regions of Turkey, the published data and information in the foreign literature are also used in the determination of the earthquake load statistics. Although the dead and live loads acting on a structure are independent of the geographical location of the structure, environmental loads, such as earthquake loads are highly dependent on the location of the structure. Accordingly, for the assessment of statistical parameters associated with earthquake loads, twelve different locations which can represent the different seismic zones of Turkey as accurately as possible are chosen. As a result of the code calibration procedure considered in this study, it is observed that the load values obtained from the Turkish Seismic Code may overestimate or underestimate the actual seismic loads in some of the seismic zones.

Key Words
earthquake load; structure; statistics; seismic code; code calibration; building code

Address
Fatih K. Firat: Department of Civil Engineering, Aksaray University, 68400, Aksaray, Turkey

M. Semih Yucemen: Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800, Ankara, Turkey

Abstract
The reliability or the safety index is a measure of how far a structure is from the state of collapse. Also it defined as the probability that a structure will not fail in its lifetime. Having any increase in the reliability index is typically interpreted as increasing in the safety of structures. On the other hand most of researchers acknowledged that one of the most effective means of increasing both the reliability and the safety of structures is to increase the structural redundancy. They also acknowledged that increasing the number of vertical seismic framing will make structural system more reliable and safer against stochastic events such as earthquakes. In this paper the reliability index and the behavior factor of a numbers of three dimensional RC moment resisting frames with the same story area, equal lateral resistant as well as different redundancy has been evaluated numerically using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Study on the reliability index and the behavior factor in the case study models of this research illustrated that the changes of these two factors do not have always the same manner due to the increasing of the structural redundancy. In some cases, structures with larger reliability index have smaller behavior factor. Also assuming the same ultimate lateral resistance of structures which causes an increase to a certain level of redundancy can enhance behavior factor of structures. However any further increase in the redundancy of that certain level might decrease the behavior factor. Furthermore, the results of this study illustrate that concerning any increase in the structural redundancy will make the reliability index of structure to be larger.

Key Words
redundancy; the deterministic overstrength index; the probabilistic overstrength index; the reliability index; the behavior factor

Address
R. Mohammadi, A. Massumi and A. Meshkat Dini: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, No. 43, Dr. Mofatteh Ave., Tehran 15719-14911, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents a strengthening method that involves the use of ferrocement jackets and chamfers to relocate plastic hinge for non-seismically designed reinforced concrete exterior beam-column joints. An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the proposed strengthening method. Four half-scale beam-column joints, including one control specimen and three strengthened specimens, were prepared and tested under quasi-static cyclic loading. Strengthening schemes include ferrocement jackets with or without skeleton reinforcements and one or two chamfers. Experimental results have indicated that the proposed strengthening method is effective to move plastic hinge from the joint to the beam and enhance seismic performance of beam-column joints. Shear stress and distortion within the joint region are also reduced significantly in strengthened specimens. Skeleton reinforcements in ferrocement provide limited improvement, except on crack control. Specimen strengthened by ferrocement jackets with one chamfer exhibits slight decrease in peak strength and energy dissipation but with increase in ductility as compared with that of two chamfers. Finally, a method for estimating moment capacity at beam-column interface for strengthened specimen is developed. The proposed method gives reasonable prediction and can ensure formation of plastic hinge at predetermined location in the beam.

Key Words
strengthening; beam-column joints; plastic hinge relocation; seismic performance; ferrocement jackets

Address
Bo Li, Eddie Siu-shu Lam, Yuk-kit Cheng: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China

Bo Wu: School of Civil Engineering & Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China

Ya-yong Wang: Institute of Earthquake Engineering, China Academy of Building Research, Beijing, China

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seismic performance of weak-axis column-tree type connections used in steel moment frames. These connections are composed of a shop-welded and field-bolted steel structure and can improve welding quality. On this basis, column-tree type connections are widely used in steel moment resisting frames in Korea and Japan. In this study, splices designed with a semi-rigid concept regarding the seismic performance of column-tree connections were experimentally evaluated. The structures can absorb energy in an inelastic state rather than the elastic state of the structures by the capacity design method. For this reason, the plastic hinge might be located at the splice connection at the weak-axis column-tree connection by reducing the splice plate thickness. The main variable was the distance from the edge of the column flange to the beam splice. CTY series specimens having column-tree connections with splice length of 600 mm and 900 mm were designed, respectively. For comparison with two specimens with the main variable, a base specimen with a weak-axis column-tree connection was fabricated and tested. The test results of three full-scale test specimens showed that the CTY series specimens successfully developed ductile behavior without brittle fracture until 5% story drift ratio. Although the base specimen reached a 5% story drift ratio, brittle fracture was detected at the backing bar near the beam-to-column connection. Comparing the energy dissipation capacity for each specimen, the CTY series specimens dissipated more energy than the base specimen.

Key Words
column-tree type; weak-axis connections; cyclic testing; bolt slip; beam splice

Address
Keunyeong Oh, Liuyi Chen, Sungbin Hong, Yang Yang and Kangmin Lee: Department of Architectural Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract
A theoretical procedure to estimate spectral displacement of a hysteretic oscillator with bilinear stiffness excited by band-limited excitation is presented. The stochastic method of ground-motion simulation is combined with the random vibration theory to compute linear and nonlinear structural response. The response is obtained by computing the root-mean-square oscillator response using dissipation energy balancing by integrating over all energy levels of system weighting with the stationary probability density of the energy. The results are presented in a convenient form, and the accuracy of the procedure is assessed by comparison with results obtained with the time-domain method using the recorded data. The model shows little or no bias at the structural period of engineering interest.

Key Words
bilinear hysteretic; random-vibration; displacement; stochastic; point-source

Address
Azad Yazdani and Mohammad-Rashid Salimi: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents average numerical results of 2128 nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE) analyses of lightweight acceleration-sensitive non-structural components (NSCs) attached to the floors of one-bay three-storey reinforced concrete (RC) primary structures (P-structures) with different eccentricity ratios. The investigated parameters include the NSC to P-structure vibration period ratio, peak ground acceleration, P-structure eccentricity ratio, and NSC damping ratio. Appropriate constitutive relationships were used to model the behaviour of the RC P-structures. The NSCs were modelled as vertical cantilevers fixed at their bases with masses on the free ends and varying lengths so as to match the vibration periods of the P-structures. Full dynamic interaction was considered between the NSCs and P-structures. A set of seven natural bi-directional ground motions were used to evaluate the seismic response of the NSCs. The numerical results show that the acceleration response of the NSCs depends on the investigated parameters. The accelerations of the NSCs attached to the flexible sides of the P-structures increased with the increase in peak ground acceleration and P-structure eccentricity ratio but decreased with the increase in NSC damping ratio. Comparison between the FE results and Eurocode 8 (EC8) predictions suggests that, under tuned conditions, EC8 provisions underestimate the seismic response of the NSCs mounted on the flexible sides of the plan-irregular RC P-structures.

Key Words
dynamic analysis; eccentricity ratio; Eurocode 8; finite element; irregular RC buildings; non-structural components; torsion

Address
Ayad B. Aldeka, Samir Dirar, Pedro Martinez-Vazquez: School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom

Andrew H.C. Chan: School of Science, Information Technology and Engineering (Ballarat), Federation University Australia, Victoria 3350, Australia

Abstract
Base isolation is an effective method for protecting structures against earthquake hazard. It elongates the period of vibration and introduces supplemental damping to the structural system. The stiffness, damping and displacement are coupled forcing the code seismic design procedure to be unnecessarily complicated. In addition, the force reduction factor -a key parameter in the design procedure- has not been well addressed by seismic design codes at the high levels of damping due to the pronounced difference between pseudo and actual accelerations. In this study, a comparison has been conducted to evaluate eight different methods, in the literature, for calculating the force reduction factor due to damping. Accordingly, a simplified seismic analysis procedure has been proposed based on the well documented N2 method. Comprehensive analysis has been performed for base-isolated structure models for direct application and verification of the proposed procedure. The results have been compared with those of the European code EC8, the nonlinear time history analysis and investigations in the literature, where good agreement has been reported. In addition, a discussion has been elaborated for the resulted response of the base-isolated structure models with respect to the dynamic characteristics of the base isolation system.

Key Words
base isolation; force reduction factor; damping; seismic analysis

Address
Mohammed H. Serror, Sherif O. El-Gazzar and Sherif A. Mourad: Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract
A damage localization algorithm based on Operational Deformed Shapes and known as Interpolation Damage Detection Method, is herein applied to the finite element model of a cable stayed bridge for detecting and localizing damages in the stays and the supporting steel beams under the bridge deck. Frequency Response Functions have been calculated basing on the responses of the bridge model to low intensity seismic excitations and used to recover the Operational Deformed Shapes both in the transversal and in the vertical direction. The analyses have been carried in the undamaged configuration and repeated in several different damaged configurations. Results show that the method is able to detect the damage and its correct location, provided an accurate estimation of the Operational Deformed Shapes is available. Furthermore, the damage detection algorithm results effective also when damages coexist at the same time at several location of the cable-stayed bridge members.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridge; damage localization; Operational Deformed Shapes; interpolation method

Address
Marco Domaneschi, Luca Martinelli: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milan, Italy

Maria Pina Limongelli: Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milan, Italy

Abstract
The excitation angle or angle of incidence is the angle in which the horizontal seismic components are applied with respect to the principal structural axes during a time history analysis. In this study, numerical simulations and parametric studies are performed for the investigation of the effect of the angle of seismic incidence on the response of adjacent buildings, which may experience structural pounding during strong earthquakes due to insufficient or no separation distance between them. A specially developed software application has been used that implements a simple and efficient methodology, according to which buildings are modelled in three dimensions and potential impacts are simulated using a novel impact model that takes into account the arbitrary location of impacts and the geometry at the point of impact. Two typical multi-storey buildings and a set of earthquake records have been used in the performed analyses. The results of the conducted parametric studies reveal that it is very important to consider the arbitrary direction of the ground motion with respect to the structural axes of the simulated buildings, especially during pounding, since, in many cases, the detrimental effects of pounding become more pronounced for an excitation angle different from the commonly examined 0 or 90 degrees.

Key Words
pounding; incidence angle; bi-directional excitation; adjacent buildings; impact; three-dimensions

Address
Panayiotis C. Polycarpou, Loizos Papaloizou, Petros Komodromos and Dimos C. Charmpis: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Str., P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus

Abstract
In this paper, the behavior of underground strutted retaining structure under seismic condition in non-liquefiable dry cohesionless soil is analyzed numerically. The numerical model is validated against the published results obtained from a study on embedded cantilever retaining wall under seismic condition. The validated model is used to investigate the difference between the static and seismic response of the structure in terms of four design parameters, e.g., support member or strut force, wall moment, lateral wall deflection and ground surface displacement. It is found that among the different design parameters, the one which is mostly affected by the earthquake force is wall deflection and the least affected is the strut force. To get the best possible results under seismic condition, the embedment depth of the wall and thickness of the wall can be chosen as around 100% and 6% of the depth of final excavation level, respectively. The stiffness of the strut may also be chosen as 5×10⁵ kN/m/m to achieve best possible performance under seismic condition.

Key Words
diaphragm wall; strutted excavation; FLAC; sand; earthquake

Address
Subha Sankar Chowdhury, Kousik Deb and Aniruddha Sengupta: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur–721302, India

Abstract
Enhancement of strength and ductility is the main reason for the extensive use of FRP jackets to provide external confinement to reinforced concrete columns especially in seismic areas. Therefore, numerous researches have been carried out in order to provide a better description of the behavior of FRP-confined concrete for practical design purposes. This study presents a new approach to obtain strength enhancement of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) confined concrete cylinders by applying artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed ANN model is based on experimental results collected from literature. It represents the ultimate strength of concrete cylinders after CFRP confinement which is also given in explicit form in terms of geometrical and mechanical parameters. The accuracy of the proposed ANN model is quite satisfactory when compared to experimental results. Moreover, the results of the proposed ANN model are compared with five important theoretical models proposed by researchers so far and considered to be in good agreement.

Key Words
ANN formulation; CFRP confinement; concrete cylinder; strength prediction

Address
Mojtaba Fathi and Soghra Rostami: Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

Mostafa Jalal: Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843–3136, USA

Abstract
The Theory of Plastic Mechanism Control (TPMC) has been recently extended to the case of Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs) with inverted Y-scheme, i.e., EBFs with vertical links. In this paper a further validation of the design procedure, based on TPMC, is provided by means of Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDA) pointing out the fulfilment of the design goal, i.e., the development of a pattern of yielding consistent with the collapse mechanism of global type where all the links are yielded and all the beams are yielded at their ends while all the columns and the diagonal braces remain in elastic range with the only exception of the base sections of first storey columns. In particular, a study case is designed according to both TPMC and Eurocode 8 provisions and the corresponding seismic performances are investigated by both push-over and IDA analyses. The results show the different performances obtained in terms of pattern of yielding, maximum interstorey drift, link plastic rotation demand and sharing of the seismic base shear between the moment-resisting part and the bracing part of the structural system. The seismic performance improvement obtained by means of TPMC, compared to Eurocode 8 provisions, is pointed out.

Key Words
thorey of plastic mechanism control; eccentrically braced frames; seismic; steel; Eurocode 8

Address
R. Montuori, E. Nastri and V. Piluso: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Italy

Abstract
In this paper, the Theory of Plastic Mechanism Control (TPMC) is applied to the seismic design of dual systems composed by moment-resisting frames and Chevron braced frames. The application of TPMC is aimed at the design of dual systems able to guarantee, under seismic horizontal forces, the development of a collapse mechanism of global type. This design goal is of primary importance in seismic design of structures, because partial failure modes and soft-storey mechanisms have to be absolutely prevented due to the worsening of the energy dissipation capacity of structures and the resulting increase of the probability of failure during severe ground motions. With reference to the examined structural typology, diagonal and beam sections are assumed to be known quantities, because they are, respectively, designed to withstand the whole seismic actions and to withstand vertical loads and the net downward force resulting from the unbalanced axial forces acting in the diagonals. Conversely column sections are designed to assure the yielding of all the beam ends of moment-frames and the yielding and the buckling of tensile and compressed diagonals of the V-Braced part, respectively. In this work, a detailed designed example dealing with the application of TPMC to moment frame- chevron brace dual systems is provided with reference to an eight storey scheme and the design procedure is validated by means of non-linear static analyses aimed to check the actual pattern of yielding. The results of push-over analyses are compared with those obtained for the dual system designed according to Eurocode 8 provisions.

Key Words
moment resisting frames; V-braced frames; global mechanism; design methodology; non linear static analyses

Address
Alessandra Longo, Rosario Montuori and Vincenzo Piluso: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno via Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano, 84084, Italy

Abstract
Spatially variable ground motions can be significant on the seismic response of a structure due to the incoherency of the incident wave. Incoherence of the incident wave is resulted from wave passage and wave scattering. In this study, wave passage effect on the response spectrum of a building structure built on a soft soil layer was investigated utilizing a finite element program of P3DASS (Pseudo 3-dimensional Dynamic Analysis of a Structure-soil System). P3DASS was developed for the axisymmetric problem in the cylindrical coordinate, but it is modified to apply anti-symmetric input earthquake motions. Study results were compared with the experimental results to verify the reliability of P3DASS program for the shear wave velocity of 250 m/s and the apparent shear wave velocities of 2000-3500 m/s. Studied transfer functions of input motions between surface mat foundation and free ground surface were well-agreed to the experimental ones with a small difference in all frequency ranges, showing some reductions of the transfer function in the high frequency range. Also wave passage effect on the elastic response spectrum reduced the elastic seismic response of a SDOF system somewhat in the short period range.

Key Words
wave passage effect; finite element program of P3DASS; soft soil layer; anti-symmetric input earthquake motions; transfer function

Address
Yong-Seok Kim: Department of Architectural Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan, Chonnam 534-729, Korea

Abstract
The importance of considering soil-structure interaction effect in the analysis and design of RC frame buildings is increasingly recognized but still not penetrated to the grass root level owing to various complexities involved. It is well established fact that the soil-structure interaction effect considerably influence the design of multi-storey buildings subjected to lateral seismic loads. The shear walls are often provided in such buildings to increase the lateral stability to resist seismic lateral loads. In the present work, the linear soil-structure analysis of a G+5 storey RC shear wall building frame resting on isolated column footings and supported by deformable soil is presented. The finite element modelling and analysis is carried out using ANSYS software under normal loads as well as under seismic loads. Various load combinations are considered as per IS-1893 (Part-1):2002. The interaction analysis is carried out with and without shear wall to investigate the effect of inclusion of shear wall on the total and differential settlements in the footings due to deformations in the soil mass. The frame and soil mass both are considered to behave in linear elastic manner. It is observed that the soil-structure interaction effect causes significant total and differential settlements in the footings. Maximum total settlement in footings occurs under vertical loads and inner footings settle more than outer footings creating a saucer shaped settlement profile of the footings. Each combination of seismic loads causes maximum differential settlement in one or more footings. Presence of shear wall decreases pulling/pushing effect of seismic forces on footings resulting in more stability to the structures.

Key Words
soil-structure interaction; ANSYS; space frame; shear wall; linear analysis; differential settlement; isolated column footing; seismic force

Address
D.K. Jain and M.S. Hora: Department of Civil Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India


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