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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 3, March 2015
 

Abstract
This paper presents the experimental results obtained by applying frequency-domain structural health monitoring techniques to assess the damage suffered on a special type of damper called Web Plastifying Damper (WPD). The WPD is a hysteretic type energy dissipator recently developed for the passive control of structures subjected to earthquakes. It consists of several I-section steel segments connected in parallel. The energy is dissipated through plastic deformations of the web of the I-sections, which constitute the dissipative parts of the damper. WPDs were subjected to successive histories of dynamically-imposed cyclic deformations of increasing magnitude with the shaking table of the University of Granada. To assess the damage to the web of the I-section steel segments after each history of loading, a new damage index called Area Index of Damage (AID) was obtained from simple vibration tests. The vibration signals were acquired by means of piezoelectric sensors attached on the I-sections, and nonparametric statistical methods were applied to calculate AID in terms of changes in frequency response functions. The damage index AID was correlated with another energy-based damage index -ID- which past research has proven to accurately characterize the level of mechanical damage. The ID is rooted in the decomposition of the load-displacement curve experienced by the damper into the so-called skeleton and Bauschinger parts. ID predicts the level of damage and the proximity to failure of the damper accurately, but it requires costly instrumentation. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate a good correlation between AID and ID in a realistic seismic loading scenario consisting of dynamically applied arbitrary cyclic loads. Based on this correlation, it is possible to estimate ID indirectly from the AID, which calls for much simpler and less expensive instrumentation.

Key Words
seismic-resistant structures; hysteretic dampers; piezoceramic sensors; structural health monitoring; non-parametrical methods; seismic loads; damage index

Address
L. Romo,A. Gallego: Department of Applied Physics University of Granada, Spain

A. Benavent-Climent: Department of Mechanics of Structures and Industrial Constructions Polytechnic University of Madrid,
Spain

L. Morillas, D. Escolano: Department of Structural Mechanics University of Granada, Spain

Abstract
The main objective of this study is to analytically investigate the effectiveness of different strengthening solutions in upgrading the seismic performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal. For this, four building models with different structural configurations and detailing were considered. Three possible rehabilitation solutions were studied, namely: (a) RC shear wall, (b) steel bracing, and (c) RC jacketing for all of the studied buildings. A numerical analysis was conducted with adaptive pushover and dynamic time history analysis. Seismic performance enhancement of the studied buildings was evaluated in terms of demand capacity ratio of the RC elements, capacity curve, inter-storey drift, energy dissipation capacity and moment curvature demand of the structures. Finally, the seismic safety assessment was performed based on standard drift limits, showing that retrofitting solutions significantly improved the seismic performance of existing buildings in Nepal.

Key Words
RC buildings; non-linear analysis; retrofitting; shear wall; steel bracings; RC jacketing

Address
Hemchandra Chaulagain: Civil Engineering Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Hemchandra Chaulagain: Oxford College of Engineering and Management, Gaindakot, Nawalparashi, Nepal

Hugo Rodrigues: School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Leiria, Portugal

Enrico Spacone: University of Chieti-Pescara, Department PRICOS - Architettura, 65127 Pescara, Italy

Humberto Varum: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems can provide valuable information regarding the safety of structures during and after ground motions which can be used by authorities to reduce postearthquake hazards. Strain gages as a key element play an important role in the success of SHM systems. Reducing the number of required strain gages while keeping the efficiency of SHM system not only can reduce the cost of structural health monitoring but also avoids storage and process of uninformative data. In this study, a method based on performance based seismic design of structures is proposed for ideal placement of stain gages in structures. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated through installation of strain gages on an Airport Traffic Control (ATC) Tower. The obtained results show that the number of required strain gages decrease significantly.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; strain gage; sensor placement; airport traffic control tower; performance based seismic design

Address
Mohammadreza Vafaei and Sophia C. Alih: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study of three two-dimensional (2D/planar) steel reinforced concrete (SRC) T-shaped column-RC beam hybrid joints and six 3D SRC T-shaped column-steel beam hybrid joints under low cyclic reversed loads. Considering different categories of steel configuration types in column cross section and horizontal loading angles for the specimens were selected, and a reliable structural testing system for the spatial loading was employed in the tests. The load-displacement curves, carrying capacity, energy dissipation capacity, ductility and deformation characteristics of the test subassemblies were analyzed. Especially, the seismic performance discrepancies between planar hybrid joints and 3D hybrid joints were intensively compared. The failure modes for planar loading and spatial loading observed in the tests showed that the shear-diagonal compressive failure was the dominating failure mode for all the specimens. In addition, the 3D hybrid joints illustrated plumper hysteretic loops for the columns configured with solid-web steel, but a little more pinched hysteretic loops for the columns configured with T-shaped steel or channel-shaped steel, better energy dissipation capacity & ductility, and larger interlayer deformation capacity than those of the planar hybrid joints. Furthermore, it was revealed that the hysteretic loops for the specimens under 45

Key Words
steel reinforced concrete (SRC); T-shaped column; hybrid joint; planar joint; 3D joint; seismic behavior; loading angle; damage

Address
Zongping Chen, Jinjun Xu, Yuliang Chen and Jianyang Xue: College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guangxi University, Guangxi, China

Zongping Chen: Key Laboratory of Disaster Prevention and Structural Safety of Chinese Education Ministry, Guangxi, China

Abstract
In order to investigate the seismic behavior of highway bridges under near-fault earthquakes, a parametric study was conducted for different regular and irregular bridges. To this end, an existing regular viaduct Highway Bridge was used as a reference model and five irregular samples were generated by varying span length and pier height. The seismic response of the six highway bridges was evaluated by three dimensional non-linear response history analysis using an ensemble of far-fault and scenario-based nearfault records. In this regard, drift ratio, input and dissipated energy as well as damage index of bridges were compared under far- and near-fault motions. The results indicate that the drift ratio under near-fault motions, on the average, is 100% and 30% more than far-fault motions at DBE and MCE levels, respectively. The energy and damage index results demonstrate a dissipation of lower energy in piers and a significant increase of collapse risk, especially for irregular highway bridges, under near-fault ground motions.

Key Words
highway bridge; pulse-like ground motion; 3-D non-linear modeling; irregular bridge

Address
Abouzar Dolati, Touraj Taghikhany,Alireza Rahai: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Mohammad Khanmohammadi: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Standards for seismic assessment and retrofitting of buildings provide deformation limit states for structural members and connections. However, in order to perform fully consistent performance-based seismic analyses of soil-structure systems; deformation limit states must also be available for foundations that are vulnerable to nonlinear actions. Because such limit states have never been established in the past, a laboratory testing program was conducted to study the rotational capacity of small-scale foundation models under combined axial load and moment. Fourteen displacement-controlled monotonic and cyclic tests were performed using a cohesionless soil contained in a 2.0X2.0X1.2 m container box. It was found that the foundation models exhibited a stable hysteretic behavior for imposed rotations exceeding 0.06 rad and that the measured foundation moment capacity complied well with Meyerhof\'s equivalent width concept. Simplified code-based soil-structure analyses of an 8-story building under an array of strong ground motions were also conducted to preliminary evaluate the implication of finite rotational capacity of vulnerable foundations. It was found that for the same soil as that of the experimental program foundations would have a deformation capacity that far exceeds the imposed rotational demands under the lateral load resisting members so yielding of the soil may constitute a reliable source of energy dissipation for the system.

Key Words
soil-structure interaction (SSI); limit states; foundation rotation; nonlinear analysis

Address
Carlos A. Blandon: Department of Civil Engineering, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia

J. Paul Smith-Pardo: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA

Albert Ortiz: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Abstract
A field based non-destructive hardness method is being developed to determine plastic strain in steel elements subjected to seismic loading. The focus of this study is on the active links of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs). The 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquake series, especially the very intense February 22 shaking, which was the first earthquake worldwide to push complete EBF systems into their inelastic state, generating a moderate to high level of plastic strain in EBF active links for a range of buildings from 3 to 23 storeys in height. Plastic deformation was confined to the active links. This raised two important questions: what was the extent of plastic deformation and what effect does that have on post-earthquake steel properties? A non-destructive hardness test method is being used to determine a relationship between hardness and plastic strain in active link beams. Active links from the earthquake affected, 23-storey Pacific Tower building in Christchurch are being analysed in the field and laboratory. Test results to date show clear evidence that this method is able to give a good relationship between plastic strain and demand. This paper presents significant findings from this project to investigate the relationship between hardness and plastic strain that warrant publication prior to the completion of the project. Principal of these is the discovery that hot rolled steel beams carry manufacturing induced plastic strains, in regions of the webs, of up to 5%.

Key Words
deformed steel; eccentrically braced frames; earthquake; hardness; plastic strain; residual stress; portable hardness tester

Address
Hassan Nashid, Charles Clifton, George Ferguson, Micheal Hodgson: Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand

Chris Seal: School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Jay-Hyouk Choi: School of Architecture, College of Engineering, Chosun University, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Time history dynamic structural analysis is a time consuming procedure when used for largescale structures or iterative analysis in structural optimization. This article proposes a new methodology for approximate prediction of extremum point of the response history via wavelets. The method changes original record into a reduced record, decreasing the computational time of the analysis. This reduced record can be utilized in iterative structural dynamic analysis of optimization and hence significantly reduces the overall computational effort. Design examples are included to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the Reduced Record Method (RRM) when utilized in optimal design of frame structures using metaheuristic algorithms.

Key Words
seismic loading; time history dynamic analysis; structural optimization; wavelets; computational time reduction; improved harmony search (IHS)

Address
A. Kaveh: Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Iran

A.A. Aghakouchak and P. Zakian: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
The strain rate of reinforced concrete (RC) structures stimulated by earthquake action has been generally recognized as in the range from 10-4/s to 10-1/s. Because both concrete and steel reinforcement are rate-sensitive materials, the RC beam-column joints are bound to behave differently under different strain rates. This paper describes an investigation of seismic behavior of RC beam-column joints which are subjected to large cyclic displacements on the beam ends with three loading velocities, i.e., 0.4 mm/s, 4 mm/s and 40 mm/s respectively. The levels of strain rate on the joint core region are correspondingly estimated to be 10-5/s, 10-4/s, and 10-2/s. It is aimed to better understand the effect of strain rates on seismic behavior of beam-column joints, such as the carrying capacity and failure modes as well as the energy dissipation. From the experiments, it is observed that with the increase of loading velocity or strain rate, damage in the joint core region decreases but damage in the plastic hinge regions of adjacent beams increases. The energy absorbed in the hysteresis loops under higher loading velocity is larger than that under quasi-static loading. It is also found that the yielding load of the joint is almost independent of the loading velocity, and there is a marginal increase of the ultimate carrying capacity when the loading velocity is increased for the ranges studied in this work. However, under higher loading velocity the residual carrying capacity after peak load drops more rapidly. Additionally, the axial compression ratio has little effect on the shear carrying capacity of the beam-column joints, but with the increase of loading velocity, the crack width of concrete in the joint zone becomes narrower. The shear carrying capacity of the joint at higher loading velocity is higher than that calculated with the quasi-static method proposed by the design code. When the dynamic strengths of materials, i.e., concrete and reinforcement, are directly substituted into the design model of current code, it tends to be insufficiently safe.

Key Words
reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column joints; seismic behavior; loading velocity; shear carrying capacity; failure mode

Address
Licheng Wang, Guoxi Fan and Yupu Song: State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China

Abstract
Iran as one of the countries located on the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt has recently experienced a few number of catastrophic earthquakes. A well-known index of how buildings are affected by earthquakes is through assessment of probable Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and structures\'response spectra. In this research, active faults around Kerman and Birjand, two major cities in eastern parts of Iran, have been considered. Seismic catalogues are gathered to categorize effects of surrounding faults on seismicity of the region. These catalogues were further refined with respect to time and space based on Knopoff-Gardner algorithm in order to increase statistical independency of events. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been estimated for each of cities regarding 50, 100, 200 and 500 years of structures\' effective life-span. These results subsequently have been compared with Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA). It has been observed that DSHA not necessarily suggests upper bound of PSHA results. Furthermore, based on spectral Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs), Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) and spectral acceleration were provided for 2% and 10% levels of probability of exceedance. The results show that increasing source-to-site distance leads to spectral acceleration reduction regarding each fault. In addition, the spectral acceleration rate of variation would increase if the source-to-site distance decreases.

Key Words
seismic hazard analysis; response spectra; uniform hazard curves; life-span effect; eastern Iran

Address
Alireza Farzampour and Arash Kamali-Asl: Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Bracing structures with off-centre bracing system is one of the new resistant systems that frequently used in the frame with pin connections. High ductility, high-energy dissipation and decrease of base shear are advantages of this bracing system. However, beside these advantages, reconstruction and hard repair of off-centre bracing system cause inappropriate performance in the earthquake. Therefore, in this paper, the goal is investigating the behavior of this type of bracing system with ductile element (circular dissipater), in order to providing replacement of damaged member without needing repair or reconstruction of the general system. To achieve this purpose, some numerical studies have been performed using ANSYS software, a frame with off-centre bracing system and optimum eccentricity (OBS-C-O) and another frame with the same identifications without ductile element (OBS) has been created. In order to investigate precisely on the optimum placement of circular elements under monotonic load again three steal frames were modeled. Furthermore, the behavior of this general system investigated for the first time, linear and nonlinear behavior of these two steel frames compared to each other, to achieve the benefit of using the circular element in an off-centre bracing system. Eventually, the analytical results revealed that the performance of steel ring at the end of off-centre braces system illustrating as a first defensive line and buckling fuse in the off-centre bracing system.

Key Words
finite elements; structural control; braces; dampers; ductility factor; energy dissipation; steel structure

Address
Mohammad Bazzaz, Zahra Andalib, Mohammad Ali Kafi and Ali Kheyroddin: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract
The application of the compressive force path method for the design of earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete structural walls with a shear span-to-depth ratio larger than 2.5 has been shown by experiment to lead to a significant reduction of the code specified transverse reinforcement within the critical lengths without compromising the code requirements for structural performance. The present work complements these findings with experimental results obtained from tests on structural walls with a shear span-to-depth ratio smaller than 2.5. The results show that the compressive force path method is capable of safeguarding the code performance requirements without the need of transverse reinforcement confining concrete within the critical lengths. Moreover, it is shown that ductility can be considerably increased by improving the strength of the two bottom edges of the walls through the use of structural steel elements extending to a small distance of the order of 100 mm from the wall base.

Key Words
earthquake-resistant design; compressive force path method; reinforced concrete; short walls; seismic performance

Address
Nick St. Zygouris, Gerasimos M. Kotsovos: Lithos Consulting Engineers, 34 Anagirountos Av. 16672, Vari, Greece

Michael D. Kotsovos: Laboratory of Concrete Research, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Abstract
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the nonlinear modelling techniques available today for describing the structural behaviour of masonry infills and their interaction with frame structures subjected to in-plane loads. Following brief overviews on the behaviour of masonry-infilled frames and on the results of salient experimental tests, three modelling approaches are discussed in more detail: the micro, the meso and the macro approaches. The first model considers each of the infilled frame elements as separate: brick units, mortar, concrete and steel reinforcement; while the second approach treats the masonry infill as a continuum. The paper focuses on the third approach, which combines frame elements for the beams and columns with one or more equivalent struts for the infill panel. Due to its relative simplicity and computational speed, the macro model technique is more widely used today, though not all proposed models capture the main effects of the frame-infill interaction.

Key Words
frame structures; masonry infill; equivalent strut model; finite element; nonlinear analyses

Address
Tarque Nicola: Division of Civil Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, Lima 32, Peru

Candido Leandro: Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Piazza Trancedi 7, 73100 Lecce, Italy

Camata Guido and Spacone Enrico: Department of Engineering and Geology, University

Abstract
The objective of this paper is to report the result of an experimental program conducted on the strengthening of nonductile RC frames by using external mesh reinforcement and plaster application. The main objective was to test an alternative strengthening technique for reinforced concrete buildings, which could be applied with minimum disturbance to the occupants. Generic specimen is two floors and one bay RC frame in 1/2 scales. The basic aim of tested strengthening techniques is to upgrade strength, ductility and stiffness of the member and/or the structural system. Six specimens, two of which were reference specimens and the remaining four of which had deficient steel detailing and poor concrete quality were strengthened and tested in an experimental program under cyclic loading. The parameters of the experimental study are mesh reinforcement ratio and plaster thickness of the infilled wall. The effects of the mesh reinforced plaster application for strengthening on behavior, strength, stiffness, failure mode and ductility of the specimens were investigated. Premature and unexpected failure mode has been observed at first and second specimens failed due to inadequate plaster thickness. Also third strengthened specimen failed due to inadequate lap splice of the external mesh reinforcement. The last modified specimen behaved satisfactorily with higher ultimate load carrying capacity. Externally reinforced infill wall composites improve seismic behavior by increasing lateral strength, lateral stiffness, and energy dissipation capacity of reinforced concrete buildings, and limit both structural and nonstructural damages caused by earthquakes.

Key Words
concrete/reinforced concrete; earthquakes; frame-wall system; stiffness degradation; strengthening

Address
Mehmet Kamanli, Hasan H. Korkmaz, Alptug Unal, Mustafa T. Cogurcu: Department of Civil Engineering, Selcuk University Engineering Faculty, Konya, Turkey

Fatih S. Balik, Fatih Bahadir: Department of Civil Engineering, Necmettin Erbakan University Eregli Kemal Akman High School, Konya, Turkey

Abstract
The slosh height and the possibility of water spill from rectangular Spent Fuel Storage Bays (SFSB) and Tray Loading Bays (TLB) of Nuclear power plant (NPP) are studied during 0.2 g, Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) level of earthquake. The slosh height obtained through Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) is compared the values given by TID-7024 (Housner 1963) and American concrete institute (ACI) seismic codes. An equivalent amplitude method is used to compute the slosh height through CFD. Numerically computed slosh height for first mode of vibration is found to be in agreement the codal values. The combined effect in longitudinal and lateral directions are studied separately, and found that the slosh height is increased by 24.3% and 38.9% along length and width directions respectively. There is no liquid spillage under SSE level of earthquake data in SFSB and TLB at convective level and at free surface acceleration data. Since seismic design codes do not have guidelines for combined excitations and effect of higher modes for irregular geometries, this CFD procedure can be opted for any geometries to study effect of higher modes and combined three directional excitations.

Key Words
liquid sloshing; SSE level earthquake; free surface; CFD; higher modes

Address
M. Eswaran, G.R. Reddy and R.K. Singh: Structural and Seismic Engineering Section, Reactor safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085, India

Abstract
The seismic sequence which hit the Northern Italian territory in 2012 produced extensive damage to reinforced concrete (RC) precast buildings typically adopted as industrial facilities. The considered damaged buildings are constituted by one-storey precast structures with RC columns connected to the ground by means of isolated socket foundations. The roof structural layout is composed of pre-stressed RC beams supporting pre-stressed RC floor elements, both designed as simply supported beams. The observed damage pattern, already highlighted in previous earthquakes, is mainly related to insufficient connection strength and ductility or to the absence of mechanical devices, being the connections designed neglecting seismic loads or neglecting displacement and rotation compatibility between adjacent elements. Following the vulnerabilities emerged in past seismic events, the paper investigates the seismic performance of industrial facilities typical of the Italian territory. The European building code seismic assessment methodologies are presented and discussed, as well as the retrofit interventions required to achieve an appropriate level of seismic capacity. The assessment procedure and retrofit solutions are applied to a selected case study.

Key Words
precast structures; seismic assessment; seismic retrofit; industrial buildings

Address
Andrea Belleri, Mauro Torquati, Paolo Riva: Department of Engineering, University of Bergamo, viale Marconi 5, 24044, Dalmine, Italy

Roberto Nascimbene: EUCENTRE, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy


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