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CONTENTS
Volume 7, Number 4, October 2014
 

Abstract
The economic consequences of large earthquakes require a revolutionary change in the seismic performance objective of residential and commercial buildings. The majority of total construction costs consist of non-structural and architectural costs. Therefore, the aim of this research is to upgrade current Life Safety performance objectives and to offset adverse effects on country\'s economy after an occurrence of large earthquakes. However, such a proposal cannot easily prove the feasibility of cost-benefit analysis in structural design. In this paper, six generic reinforced concrete frames and dual system structures designed based on Turkish Seismic Code were used in cost analysis. The study reveals that load bearing structural systems with Immediate Occupancy performance level in seismic zones can be achieved with negligible costs.

Key Words
seismic codes; performance based seismic design; building stock; cost-benefit

Address
Mustafa Kutanis and Elif Orak Boru: Department of Civil Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey

Abstract
A method is presented in this paper to analyze the dynamic response behavior of suspended building structures. The effect of semi-rigid connections that link suspended floors with their supporting structure on structural performance is investigated. The connections, like the restrains in non-structural suspended components, are designed as semi-rigid to avoid pounding and as energy dissipation components to reduce structural response. Parametric study is conducted to assess the dynamic characteristics of suspended building structures with varying connection stiffness and suspended mass ratios. Modal analysis is applied to identify the two distinct sets of vibration modes, pendulum and bearing, of a suspended building structure. The cumulative modal mass is discussed to ensure the accuracy in applying the method of response spectrum analysis by SRSS or CQC modal combination. Case studies indicate that a suspended building having semi-rigid connections and proper suspended mass ratios can avoid local pounding failure and reduce seismic response.

Key Words
suspended building structure; semi-rigid connection; modal analysis; seismic response

Address
Yuxin Liu: Civil Engineering Analysis, Candu Energy Inc. (CE), Mississauga, Canada, L5K 1B2

Zhitao Lu: School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

Abstract
Seismically induced structural damage, as well as any damage caused by a natural catastrophic event, covers a wide area. This suggests to supervise the event consequences by vision tools. This paper reports the evolution from the results obtained by the project RADATT (RApid Damage Assessment Telematics Tool) funded by the European Commission within FP4.The aim was to supply a rapid and reliable damage detector/estimator for an area where a catastrophic event had occurred. Here, a general open-source methodology for the detection and the estimation of the damage caused by natural catastrophes is developed. The suitable available hazard and vulnerability data and satellite pictures covering the area of interest represent the required bits of information for updated telematics tools able to manage it. As a result the global damage is detected by the simple use of open source software. Acase-study to a highly dense agglomerate of buildings is discussed in order to provide the main details of the proposed methodology.

Key Words
catastrophic event; damage detection; GIS; risk assessment; risk management; satellite image

Address
Daniele Bortoluzzi, Fabio Casciati, Lorenzo Elia and Lucia Faravelli: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia
Via Ferrata 3, 27100, Pavia, Italy

Abstract
Solid piers with a rounded rectangular cross-section are widely used in railway bridges for high-speed trains in China. Compared to highway bridge piers, these railway bridge piers have a larger cross-section and less steel reinforcement. Existing material models cannot accurately predict the seismic behavior of this kind of railway bridge piers. This is because only a few parameters, such as axial load, longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, are taken into account. To enable a better understanding of the seismic behavior of this type of bridge pier, a simultaneous influence of the various parameters, i.e. ratio of height to thickness, axial load to concrete compressive strength ratio and longitudinal to transverse reinforcements, on the failure characteristics, hysteresis, skeleton curves, and displacement ductility were investigated. In total, nine model piers were tested under cyclic loading. The hysteretic response obtained from the experiments is compared with that obtained from numerical studies using existing material models. The experimental data shows that the hysteresis curves have significantly pinched characteristics that are associated with small longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The displacement ductility reduces with an increase in ratio of axial load to concrete compressive strength and longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The experimental results are largely in agreement with the numerical results obtained using Chang-Mander concrete model.

Key Words
RC railway bridge pier; cyclic loading; seismic performance; numerical analysis; displacement ductility

Address
Guangqiang Shao and Lizhong Jiang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, 22 Shaoshan South Road, Changsha, China

Lizhong Jiang: National Engineering Laboratory for Construction Technology of High Speed Rail,
22 Shaoshan South Road, Changsha, China

Nawawi Chouw: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the University of Auckland,
20 Symonds Street, Auckland, New Zealand

Abstract
In performance-based seismic design procedures Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and pseudo-Spectral acceleration (Sa) are commonly used to predict the response of structures to earthquake. Recently, research has been carried out to evaluate the predictive capability of these standard Intensity Measures (IMs) with respect to different types of structures and Engineering Demand Parameter (EDP) commonly used to measure damage. Efforts have been also spent to propose alternative IMs that are able to improve the results of the response predictions. However, most of these IMs are not usually employed in probabilistic seismic demand analyses because of the lack of reliable Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). In order to define seismic hazard and thus to calculate demand hazard curves it is essential, in fact, to establish a GMPE for the earthquake intensity. In the light of this need, new GMPEs are proposed here for the elastic input energy spectra, energy-based intensity measures that have been shown to be good predictors of both structural and non-structural damage for many types of structures. The proposed GMPEs are developed using mixed-effects models by empirical regressions on a large number of strong-motions selected from the NGA database. Parametric analyses are carried out to show the effect of some properties variation, such as fault mechanism, type of soil, earthquake magnitude and distance, on the considered IMs. Results of comparisons between the proposed GMPEs and other from the literature are finally shown.

Key Words
elastic input energy spectra; ground motion prediction equation, performance-based earthquake engineering; mixed-effects model

Address
Yin Cheng, Andrea Lucchini and Fabrizio Mollaioli: Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome,
Via Gramsci 53, Rome, Italy

Abstract
The main object of this study is to determine and compare the structural behavior of base isolated long span highway bridge, Gülburnu Highway Bridge, using single concave friction pendulum (SCFP) and triple concave friction pendulum (TCFP). The bridge is seismically isolated in the design phase to increase the main period and reduce the horizontal forces with moments using SCFP bearings. In the content of the paper, firstly three dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the bridge is constituted using project drawings by SAP2000 software. The dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies and periods, and the structural response such as displacements, axial forces, shear forces and torsional moments are attained from the modal and dynamic analyses. After, FEM of the bridge is updated using TCFP and the analyses are performed. At the end of the study, the dynamic characteristics and internal forces are compared with each other to extract the TCFP effect. To emphasize the base isolation effect, the non-isolated structural analysis results are added to graphics. The predominant frequencies of bridge non-isolated, isolated with SCFP and isolated with TCFP conditions decreased from 0.849Hz to 0.497Hz and 0.338Hz, respectively. The maximum vertical displacements are obtained as 57cm, 54cm and 44cm for non-isolated, isolated with SCFP and isolated with TCFP conditions, respectively. The maximum vertical displacement reduction between isolated with TCFP bearing and isolated with SCFP bearing bridge is %23. Maximum axial forces are obtained as 60619kN, 18728kN and 7382kN, maximum shear forces are obtained as 23408kN, 17913kN and 16249kN and maximum torsional moments are obtained as 24020kNm, 7619kNm and 3840kNm for non-isolated, isolated with SCFP and isolated with TCFP conditions, respectively.

Key Words
dynamic characteristics; finite element model; long span highway bridge; single concave friction pendulums; triple concave friction pendulums

Address
Muhammet Yurdakul: Bayburt University, Department of Civil Engineering, 69000, Bayburt, Turkey

Sevket Ates and Ahmet Can Altunisik: Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
he development of modern concrete technology makes it much easier to produce high-strength concrete (HSC) or ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC) with high workability. However, the application of this concrete is limited in practical construction of traditional reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to low-ductility performance. To further push up the limit of the design concrete strength, concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns have been recommended considering its superior strength and ductility performance. However, the beneficial composite action cannot be fully developed at early elastic stage as steel dilates more than concrete and thereby reducing the elastic strength and stiffness of the CFST columns. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of steel rings is proposed in this study to restrict the lateral dilation of concrete and steel. In this paper, a total of 29 high-strength CFST (HSCFST) columns of various dimensions cast with concrete strength of 75 to 120 MPa concrete and installed with external steel rings were tested under uni-axial compression. From the results, it can be concluded that the proposed ring installation can further improve both strength and ductility of HSCFST columns by restricting the column dilation. Lastly, an analytical model calculating the uni-axial strength of ring-confined HSCFST columns is proposed and verified based on the Von-Mises and Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria for steel tube and in-filled concrete, respectively.

Key Words
analytical model; concrete-filled-steel-tube; high-strength concrete; mohr-coulomb; von-mises

Address
M.H. Lai: Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

J.C.M. Ho: School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia

Abstract
In this study, nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed in order to evaluate and compare the structural response of different type of moment resisting frame buildings equipped with conventional braces (CBs) and buckling restrained braces (BRBs) subjected to near-field ground motions. For this, the case study frames, namely, ordinary moment-resisting frame (OMRF) and special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) having two equal bays of 6 m and a total height of 20 m were utilized. Then, CBs and BRBs were inserted in the bays of the existing frames. As a brace pattern, diagonal type with different configurations were used for the braced frame structures. For the earthquake excitation, artificial pulses equivalent to Northridge and Kobe earthquake records were taken into account. The results in terms of the inter-story drift index, global damage index, base shear, top shear, damage index, and plastification were discussed. The analysis of the results indicated a considerable improvement in the structural performance of the existing frames with the inclusion of conventional and especially buckling-restrained braces.

Key Words
buckling-restrained brace; conventional brace; earthquake; frames; structural response; performance characteristics

Address
Esra Mete Güneyisi and Nali Ameen: Department of Civil Engineering, Gaziantep University, 27310, Gaziantep, Turkey

Abstract
This paper presents experimental and numerical study on seismic performance of a super tall steel tower structure. The steel tower, with a height of 388 meters, employs a steel space truss with spiral steel columns to serve as its main lateral load resisting system. Moreover, this space truss was surrounded by the spiral steel columns to form a steel mega system in order to support a 12-story platform building which is located from the height of 230 meters to 263 meters. A 1/40 scaled model for this tower structure was made and tested on shake table under a series of one- and two-dimensional earthquake excitations with gradually increasing acceleration amplitudes. The test model performed elastically up to the seismic excitations representing the earthquakes with a return period of 475 years, and the test model also survived with limited damages under the seismic excitations representing the earthquakes with a return period 2475 years. A finite element model for the prototype structure was further developed and verified. It was noted that the model predictions on dynamic properties and displacement responses agreed reasonably well with test results. The maximum inter-story drift of the tower structure was obtained, and the stress in the steel members was investigated. Results indicated that larger displacement responses were observed for the section from the height of 50 meters to 100 meters in the tower structure. For structural design, applicable measures should be adopted to increase the stiffness and ductility for this section in order to avoid excessive deformations, and to improve the serviceability of the prototype structure.

Key Words
steel tower; seismic performance; shake table test; dynamic property; finite element model

Address
Minjuan He, Zheng Li and Renle Ma: Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China

Feng Liang: Architectural Design & Research Institute of Tongji University (Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai, 200092, China

Abstract
Progressive collapse, which is referred to as the collapse of the entire building under local damages, is a common failure mode happened by earthquakes. The collapse process highly depends on the whole structural system. Since, asymmetry of the building plan leads to the local damage concentration; it may intensify the progressive collapse mechanism of asymmetric buildings. In this research the progressive collapse of regular and irregular 6-story RC ordinary moment resisting frame buildings are studied in the presence of the earthquake loads. Collapse process and collapse propagation are investigated using nonlinear time history analyses (NLTHA) in buildings with 5%, 15% and 25% mass asymmetry with respect to the number of collapsed hinges and story drifts criteria. Results show that increasing the value of mass eccentricity makes the asymmetric buildings become unstable earlier and in the early stages with lower number of the collapsed hinges. So, with increasing the mass eccentricity in building, instability and collapse of the entire building occurs earlier, with lower potential of the progressive collapse. It is also demonstrated that with increasing the mass asymmetry the decreasing trend of the number of collapsed beam and column hinges is approximately similar to the decreasing trend in the average story drifts of the mass centers and stiff edges. So, as an alternative to a much difficult-to-calculate local response parameter of the number of collapsed hinges, the story drift, as a global response parameter, measures the potential of progressive collapse more easily.

Key Words
capacity spectrum method (CSM); inelastic displacement; demand spectrum; higher mode; steel moment frame

Address
Sang Whan Han, Sung Jin Ha and Ki Hoon Moon: Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Republic of Korea

Myoungsu Shin: S chool of Urban and Environmental Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798, Republic of Korea


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