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CONTENTS
Volume 7, Number 2, August 2014
 

Abstract
A new method is proposed for random vibration anaylsis of hysteretic systems subjected to non-stationary random excitations. With the Bouc-Wen model, motion equations of hysteretic systems are first transformed into quasi-linear equations by applying the concept of equivalent excitations and decoupling of the real and hysteretic displacements, and the derived equation system can be solved by either the precise time integration or the Newmark-B integration method. Combining the numerical solution of the auxiliary differential equation for hysteretic displacements, an explicit iteration algorithm is then developed for the dynamic response analysis of hysteretic systems. Because the computational cost for a large number of deterministic analyses of hysteretic systems can be significantly reduced, Monte-Carlo simulation using the explicit iteration algorithm is now viable, and statistical characteristics of the non-stationary random responses of a hysteretic system can be obtained. Numerical examples are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the present approach.

Key Words
random vibration; non-stationary; hysteretic systems; explicit iteration method; monte-carlo si-mulation method

Address
Cheng Su, Huan Huang, Haitao Ma and Rui Xu: School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R. China

Cheng Su and Haitao Ma: State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R. China

Abstract
The Conditional Mean Spectrum represents a powerful link between the seismic hazard information and the selection of strong ground motion records at a particular site. The scope of the paper is to apply for the city of Bucharest for the first time the method to obtain the Conditional Mean Spectrum (CMS) presented by Baker (2011) and to select, on the basis of the CMS, a suite of strong ground motions for performing elastic and inelastic dynamic analyses of buildings and structures with fundamental periods of vibration in the vicinity of 1.0 s. The major seismic hazard for Bucharest and for most of Southern and Eastern Romania is dominated by the Vrancea subcrustal seismic source. The ground motion prediction equation developed for subduction-type earthquakes and soil conditions by Youngs et al. (1997) is used for the computation of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) and the CMS. The disaggregation of seismic hazard is then performed in order to determine the mean causal values of magnitude and source-to-site distance for a particular spectral ordinate (for a spectral period T = 1.0 s in this study). The spectral period of 1.0 s is considered to be representative for the new stock of residential and office reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Bucharest. The differences between the Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) and the Conditional Mean Spectrum (CMS) are discussed taking into account the scarcity of ground motions recorded in the region of Bucharest and the frequency content characteristics of the recorded data. Moreover, a record selection based on the criteria proposed by Baker and Cornell (2006) and Baker (2011) is performed using a dataset consisting of strong ground motions recorded during seven Vrancea seismic events.

Key Words
Vrancea seismic source; conditional mean spectrum; hazard disaggregation

Address
Radu Vacareanu and Florin Pavel: Department of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest,
Bd. Lacul Tei, 122-124, 020396, Romania

Mihail Iancovici: Department of Structural Mechanics, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest,
Bd. Lacul Tei, 122-124, 020396, Romania

Abstract
Although the family methods with unconditional stability and numerical dissipation have been developed for structural dynamics they all are implicit methods and thus an iterative procedure is generally involved for each time step. In this work, a new family method is proposed. It involves no nonlinear iterations in addition to unconditional stability and favorable numerical dissipation, which can be continuously controlled. In particular, it can have a zero damping ratio. The most important improvement of this family method is that it involves no nonlinear iterations for each time step and thus it can save many computationally efforts when compared to the currently available dissipative implicit integration methods.

Key Words
unconditional stability, numerical dissipation, nonlinear dynamic analysis, accuracy, structure-dependent integration method

Address
Shuenn-Yih-Chang: Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, NTUT Box 2653, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Republic of China

Abstract
The steel tube-reinforced concrete (ST-RC) composite column is a novel type of composite column, consisting of a steel tube embedded in reinforced concrete. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of cumulative damage on the seismic behavior of ST-RC columns through experimental testing. Six large-scale ST-RC column specimens were subjected to high axial forces and cyclic lateral loading. The specimens included two groups, where Group I had a higher amount of transverse reinforcement than Group II. The test results indicate that all specimens failed in a flexural mode, characterized by buckling and yielding of longitudinal rebars, failure of transverse rebars, compressive crushing of concrete, and steel tube buckling at the base of the columns. The number of loading cycles was found to have minimal effect on the strength capacity of the specimens. The number of loading cycles had limited effect on the deformation capacity for the Group I specimens, while an obvious effect on the deformation capacity for the Group II specimens was observed. The Group I specimen showed significantly larger deformation and energy dissipation capacities than the corresponding Group II specimen, for the case where the lateral cyclic loads were repeated ten cycles at each drift level. The ultimate displacement of the Group I specimen was 25% larger than that of the Group II counterpart, and the cumulative energy dissipated by the former was 2.8 times that of the latter. Based on the test results, recommendations are made for the amount of transverse reinforcement required in seismic design of ST-RC columns for ensuring adequate deformation capacity.

Key Words
steel-concrete composite column; cumulative damage; number of loading cycles; amount of transverse reinforcement; deformation capacity

Address
Xiaodong Ji, Mingliang Zhang, Jiaru Qian and Hongsong Hu: Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Safety and Durability of China Education Ministry, Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China


Hongzhen Kang: Department of Civil Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000, China

Abstract
In this paper the vulnerability of the confined masonry buildings is evaluated analytically. The proposed approach includes the nonlinear dynamic analysis of the two-story confined masonry buildings with common plan as a reference structure. In this approach the damage level is calculated based on the probability of exceedance of loss vs a specified ground motion in the form of fragility curves. The fragility curves of confined masonry wall buildings are presented in two levels of limit states corresponding to elastic and maximum strength versus PGA based on analytical method. In this regard the randomness of parameters indicating the characteristics of the building structure as well as ground motion is considered as likely uncertainties. In order to develop the analytical fragility curves the proposed analytical models of confined masonry walls in a previous investigation of the authors, are used to specify the damage indices and responses of the structure. In order to obtain damage indices a series of pushover analyses are performed, and to identify the seismic demand a series of nonlinear dynamic analysis are conducted. Finally by considering various mechanical and geometric parameters of masonry walls and numerous accelerograms, the fragility curves with assuming a log normal distribution of data are derived based on capacity and demand of building structures in a probabilistic approach.

Key Words
confined masonry buildings; analytical models of confined masonry; fragility curves; vulnerability of confined masonry; openSees; DIANA

Address
Fariman Ranjbaran: Civil Eng. Dept., Islamshahr Branch of the Islamic Azad University (IAU), Islamshahr, Tehran, Iran

Mahmood Hosseini: Structural Eng. Research Center, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Ancient masonry towers are regarded as among the most important historical heritage structures of the world. These slender structures typically have orthogonal and circular geometry in plane. These structural forms are commonly installed with adjacent structures. Because of their geometrical shapes and structural constraints, ancient masonry towers are more vulnerable to earthquake damage. The main goal of the paper is to investigate the seismic behavior of Erzurum Clock Tower under earthquake loading and to determine the contribution of the castle walls to the seismic performance of the tower. In this study, four three-dimensional finite element models of the Erzurum Clock Tower were developed and the seismic responses of the models were investigated. Time history analyses were performed using the earthquakes that took place in Turkey in 1983 near Erzurum and in 1992 near Erzincan. In the first model, the clock tower was modeled without the adjacent walls; in the second model, the clock tower was modeled with a castle wall on the south side; in the third model, the clock tower was modeled with a castle wall on the north side; and in the last model, the clock tower was modeled with two castle walls on both the north and south sides. Results of the analyses show that the adjacent walls do not allow lateral movements and the horizontal displacements decreases. It is concluded that the adjacent structures should be taken into consideration when modeling seismic performance in order to get accurate and realistic results.

Key Words
masonry clock towers; seismic assessment; adjacent structures; finite element method; seismic behavior; time history analysis

Address
Ferit Cakir: Department of Architectural, Amasya University, Amasya, Turkey

Habib Uysal: Department of Civil Engineering, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

Abstract
In this paper, a three dimensional soil-structure interaction (SSI) is numerically simulated using finite element method in order to analyse the foundation moments in annular raft of tall slender chimney structures incorporating the effect of openings in the structure and the effect of soil flexibility, when the structure-soil system is subjected to El Centro (1940) ground motion in time domain. The transient dynamic analysis is carried out using LS-DYNA software. The linear ground response analysis program ProShake has been adopted for obtaining the ground level excitation for different soil conditions, given the rock level excitation. The radial and tangential bending moments of annular raft foundation obtained from this SSI analysis have been compared with those obtained from conventional method according to the Indian standard code of practice, IS 11089:1984. It is observed that tangential and radial moments increase with the increase in flexibility of soil. The analysis results show that the natural frequency of chimney decreases with increase in supporting soil flexibility. Structural responses increase when the openings in the structure are also considered. The purpose of this paper is to propose the need for an accurate evaluation of the soil-structure interaction forces which govern the structural response.

Key Words
dynamic soil-structure interaction; seismic response; LS-DYNA; industrial chimney; natural frequency; non-reflecting boundary; soil flexibility

Address
B.R. Jayalekshmi and R. Shivashankar: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka.

Ansu Thomas: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Raipur


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