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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 6, December 2013
 

Abstract
This paper investigated the seismic behaviour of an innovated non-ductile precast concrete wall structural system; namely HC Precast System (HCPS). The system comprises load-bearing precast wall panels merely connected only to column at both ends. Such study is needed because there is limited research information available in design codes for such structure particularly in regions having low to moderate seismicity threats. Experimentally calibrated numerical model of the wall system was used to carry out nonlinear pushover analyses with various types of lateral loading patterns. Effects of laterally applied single point load (SPL), uniformly distributed load (UDL), modal distributed load (MDL) and triangular distributed load (TDL) onto global behaviour of HCPS were identified. Discussion was focused on structural performance such as ductility, deformability, and effective stiffness of the wall system. Thus, a new method for engineers to estimate the nonlinear deformation of HCPS through linear analysis was proposed.

Key Words
low ductility; displacement factor; seismic; precast concrete wall; pushover

Address
Patrick L.Y. Tiong and Azlan Adnan: Department of Structure and Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Nor H.A. Hamid: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40310 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract
For economical earthquake resistant design of cable-stayed bridge tower, the use of energy dissipation systems for the earthquake protection of steel structures represents an alternative seismic design method where the tower structure could be constructed to dissipate a large amount of earthquake input energy through inelastic deformations in certain positions, which could be easily retrofitted after damage. The design of energy dissipation systems for bridges could be achieved as the result of two conflicting requirements: no damage under serviceability limit state load condition and maximum dissipation under ultimate limit state load condition. A new concept for cable-stayed bridge tower seismic design that incorporates sacrificial link scheme of low yield point steel horizontal beam is introduced to enable the tower frame structure to remain elastic under large seismic excitation. A nonlinear dynamic analysis for the tower model with the proposed energy dissipation systems is carried out and compared to the response obtained for the tower with its original configuration. The improvement in seismic performance of the tower with supplemental passive energy dissipation system has been measured in terms of the reduction achieved in different response quantities. Obtained results show that the proposed energy dissipation system of low yield point steel seismic link could strongly enhance the seismic performance of the tower structure where the tower and the overall bridge demands are significantly reduced. Low yield point steel seismic link effectively reduces the damage of main structural members under earthquake loading as seismic link yield level decreases due their exceptional behavior as well as its ability to undergo early plastic deformations achieving the concentration of inelastic deformation at tower horizontal beam.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridge towers; energy dissipation damper; seismic response; time history analysis; passive control; low yield steel

Address
Shehata E. Abdel Raheem: Taibah University, Madinah Munawarh, KSA; Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt
Toshiro Hayashikawa: Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Abstract
During an earthquake, soils filter and send out the shaking to the building and simultaneously it has the role of bearing the building vibrations and transmitting them back to the ground. In other words, the ground and the building interact with each other. Hence, soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a key parameter that affects the performance of buildings during the earthquakes and is worth to be taken into consideration. Columns are one of the most crucial elements in RC buildings that play an important role in stability of the building and must be able to dissipate energy under seismic loads. Recent earthquakes showed that formation of plastic hinges in columns is still possible as a result of strong ground motion, despite the application of strong column-weak beam concept, as recommended by various design codes. Energy is dissipated through the plastic deformation of specific zones at the end of a member without affecting the rest of the structure. The formation of a plastic hinge in an RC column in regions that experience inelastic actions depends on the column details as well as soil-structure interaction (SSI). In this paper, 854 different scenarios have been analyzed by inelastic time-history analyses to predict the nonlinear behavior of RC columns considering soil-structure interaction (SSI). The effects of axial load, height over depth ratio, main period of soil and structure as well as different characteristics of earthquakes, are evaluated analytically by finite element methods and the results are compared with corresponding experimental data. Findings from this study provide a simple expression to estimate plastic hinge length of RC columns including soil-structure interaction.

Key Words
soil-structure interaction; plastic hinge length; nonlinear behaviour; finite element analysis

Address
Alireza Mortezaei: Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract
In order to verify the applicability of buckling restrained braces (BRB's) and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets to the seismic strengthening of a low-rise RC building having the irregularities of a soft/weak story and torsion at the ground story, a series of earthquake simulation tests were conducted on a 1:5 scale RC building model before, and after, the strengthening, and these test results are compared and analyzed, to check the effectiveness of the strengthening. Based on the investigations, the following conclusions are made: (1) The BRB's revealed significant slips at the joint with the existing RC beam, up-lifts of columns from RC foundations and displacements due to the flexibility of foundations, and final failure due to the buckling and fracture of base joint angles. The lateral stiffness appeared to be, thereby, as low as one seventh of the intended value, which led to a large yield displacement and, therefore, the BRB's could not dissipate seismic input energy as desired within the range of anticipated displacements. (2) Although the strengthened model did not behave as desired, great enhancement in earthquake resistance was achieved through an approximate 50% increase in the lateral resistance of the wall, due to the axial constraint by the peripheral BRB frames. Finally, (3) whereas in the original model, base torsion was resisted by both the inner core walls and the peripheral frames, the strengthened model resisted most of the base torsion with the peripheral frames, after yielding of the inner core walls, and represented dual values of torsion stiffness, depending on the yielding of core walls.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; irregular; earthquake simulation test; torsion; buckling-restrained brace

Address
Han Seon Lee, Kyung Bo Lee and Kyung Ran Hwang: School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Korea
Chang Seok Cho: WISE Structural Engineering Co. Ltd, Seoul, 137-071, Korea

Abstract
Near field ground motions have caused several structural damages in recent decades. As a result, seismic codes are being updated with related requirements. In this paper a comparative study on the seismic behavior of concentrically braced frames (CBFs) designed based on different seismic codes is performed. Reliability of various frames with different heights and bracing types are analyzed based on the results of \'Incremental Dynamic Analysis\' (IDA) under near field ground motions. Fragility curves corresponding to IO (Immediate Occupancy) and CP (Collapse Prevention) limit states are extracted based on IDA curves. Results imply that, frames designed based on the near field seismic design criteria of UBC-97 are more reliable under near field ground motions and their failure probability is less comparing to others.

Key Words
incremental dynamic analysis; reliability; limit states; fragility

Address
Asma Sistani, Behrouz Asgarian and Ali Jalaeefar: Faculty of Civil Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology No.1364, Valiasr St., Mirdamad intersection, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
One of the most important issues in progressive collapse mechanism of the buildings is evaluation of the collapse distribution in presence of the earthquake loads. Here, collapse propagation is investigated by tracking down the location and type of the collapsed beam and column elements, from the first element to the entire buildings. 6-story reinforced concrete ordinary moment resisting frame buildings with one directional mass eccentricity of 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% are studied to investigate differences among the progressive collapse mechanism of the regular and irregular buildings. According to the results of the nonlinear time history analyses, there are some patterns to predict progressive collapse scenarios in beam and column elements of the similar regular and irregular buildings. Results also show that collapse distribution patterns are approximately independent of the earthquake records.

Key Words
irregular buildings; collapse distribution; progressive collapse; reinforced concrete buildings; earthquake load

Address
Somayyeh Karimiyan and Abdolreza S. Moghadam: International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran
Morteza Karimiyan: Applied Science and Technology University, Tehran, Iran
Ali Husseinzadeh Kashan: Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


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