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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 5, November 2013
 

Abstract
Seismic isolation is an effective method for the protection of buildings and their contents during strong earthquakes. This research work aims to assess the appropriateness of the linear and nonlinear models that can be used in the analysis of typical low-rise base isolated steel buildings, taking into account the inherent nonlinearities of the isolation system as well as the potential nonlinearities of the superstructure in case of strong ground motions. The accuracy of the linearization of the isolator properties according to Eurocode 8 is evaluated comparatively with the corresponding response that can be obtained through the nonlinear hysteretic Bouc-Wen constitutive model. The suitability of the linearized model in the determination of the size of the required seismic gap is assessed, under various earthquake intensities, considering relevant methods that are provided by building codes. Furthermore, the validity of the common assumption of elastic behavior for the superstructure is explored and the alteration of the structural response due to the inelastic deformations of the superstructure as a consequence of potential collision to the restraining moat wall is studied. The usage of a nonlinear model for the isolation system is found to be necessary in order to achieve a sufficiently accurate assessment of the structural response and a reliable estimation of the required width of the provided seismic gap. Moreover, the simulations reveal that the superstructure

Key Words
seismic isolation; base isolation; rubber bearings; Bouc-Wen model; seismic gap; nonlinear analysis; superstructure

Address
Varnavas Varnava and Petros Komodromos: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 1687, Cyprus

Abstract
Development of flexural yielding and large rotation ductilities in the plastic hinge zones of frame members is synonymous with the spread of bar reinforcement yielding into the supporting anchorage. Yield penetration where it occurs, destroys interfacial bond between bar and concrete and reduces the strain development capacity of the reinforcement. This affects the plastic rotation capacity of the member by increasing the contribution of bar pullout. A side effect is increased strains in the compression zone within the plastic hinge region, which may be critical in displacement-based detailing procedures that are linked to concrete strains (e.g. in structural walls). To quantify the effects of yield penetration from first principles, closed form solutions of the field equations of bond over the anchorage are derived, considering bond plastification, cover debonding after bar yielding and spread of inelasticity in the anchorage. Strain development capacity is shown to be a totally different entity from stress development capacity and, in the framework of performance based design, bar slip and the length of debonding are calculated as functions of the bar strain at the loaded-end, to be used in calculations of pullout rotation at monolithic member connections. Analytical results are explored parametrically to lead to design charts for practical use of the paper

Key Words
bond; slip; yield penetration; seismic assessment; drift; rotation capacity; repair

Address
S.P. Tastani: Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh), Vas. Sofias 12, 67100, Greece S.J. Pantazopoulou: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1687, Cyprus

Abstract
Using of masonry infill as partitions, in flat slab frame buildings is a common practice in many parts of the world. The infill is, generally, not considered in the design and the buildings are designed as bare frames. More of fundamental information in the effect of masomary infill on the seismic performance of RC building frames is in great demand for structural engineers. Therefore the main aim of this research is to evaluate the seismic performance of such buildings without (bare frame) and with various systems of the masonary infill. For this purpose, thirteen three dimensional models are chosen and analyzed by SAP2000 program. In this study the stress strain relation model proposed by Crisafulli for the hysteric behaviour of masonary subjected to cyclic loading is used. The results show that the nonstructural masonary infill can impart significant increase global strength and stiffness of such building frames and can enhance the seismic behaviour of flat slab frame building to large extent depending on infill wall system. As a result great deal of insight has been obtained on seismic response of such flat slab buildings which enable the structural engineer to determine the optimum position of infill wall between the columns.

Key Words
earthquake; non-structural brick walls; bare frame; masonry infill; reinforced concrete frame; non-linear modeling; time history analysis.

Address
Ahmed Abdelraheem Farghaly: Civil and Architecture Building Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Sohag University, Egypt
Hamdy H.A. Abdel Rahim: Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt

Abstract
Many of the current buildings in Algeria were built in the past without any consideration to the requirements of the seismic code. Among these buildings, there are a large number of individual houses built in the 1980's by their owners. They are Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame structures with unreinforced hollow masonry infill walls. This buildings type experienced major damage in the 2003 (Algeria) earthquake, generated by deficiencies in the structural system. In the present study, special attention is placed upon examining the vulnerability of RC frame houses. Their situation and their general features are investigated. Observing their seismic behavior, structural deficiencies are identified. The seismic vulnerability of this type of buildings depends on several factors, such as; structural system, plan and vertical configuration, materials and workmanship. The results of the vulnerability assessment of a group of RC frame houses are presented. Using a method based on the European Macroseismic Scale EMS-98 definitions, presented in previous studies, distribution of damage is obtained.

Key Words
damage; individual houses; reinforced concrete; seismic vulnerability

Address
Farah Lazzali: Civil Engineering, M

Abstract
The effect of dead loads on dynamic responses of a uniform elastic beam subjected to moving loads is examined by means of a governing equation which takes into account initial bending stresses due to dead loads. First, the governing equation of beams which includes the effect of dead loads is briefly presented from the author's paper (1990, 1991, 2010). The effect of dead loads is considered by a strain energy produced by conservative initial stresses caused by the dead loads. Second, the effect of dead loads on dynamical responses produced by moving loads in simply supported beams is confirmed by the results of numerical computations using the Galerkin method and Wilson-method. It is shown that the dynamical responses by moving loads are decreased remarkably on a heavyweight beam when the effect of dead loads is included. Third, an approximate solution of dynamic deflections including the effect of dead loads for a uniform beam subjected to moving loads is presented in a closed-form for the case without the additional mass due to moving loads. The proposed solution shows a good agreement with results of numerical computations with the Galerkin method and Wilson-method. Finally it is clarified that the effect of dead loads on elastic uniform beams subjected to moving loads acts on the restraint of the transverse vibration for the both cases without and with the additional mass due to moving loads.

Key Words
beams; dead load; initial stress; vibration; dynamic analysis; Galerkin equation; linear and nonlinear; live load; moving load; safety

Address
Hideo Takabatake: Department of Architecture, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Institute of Disaster and Environmental Science, 3-1, Yatsukaho, Hakusan City, Ishikawa 924-0838, Japan

Abstract
In this study the seismic risk assessments of six- and twelve-story staggered wall system structures with three different structural variations were performed. The performances of staggered wall structures with added columns along the central corridor and the structures with their first story walls replaced by beams and columns were compared with those of the regular staggered wall structures. To this end incremental dynamic analyses were carried out using twenty two pairs of earthquake records to obtain the failure probabilities for various intensity of seismic load. The seismic risk for each damage state was computed based on the fragility analysis results and the probability of occurrence of earthquake ground motions. According to the analysis results, it was observed that the structures with added columns along the central corridor showed lowest probability of failure and seismic risk. The structures with their first story walls replaced by beams and columns showed lowest margin for safety.

Key Words
staggered wall; seismic fragility; seismic hazard; seismic risk

Address
Jinkoo Kim and Donggeol Baek: Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746, Korea


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