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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 4, April 2013
 

Abstract
Earthquake response calculation, parametric analysis and seismic parameter optimization of base-isolated structures are some critical issues for seismic design of base-isolated structures. To calculate the earthquake responses for such non-symmetric and non-classical damping linear systems and to implement the earthquake resistant design codes, a modified complex mode superposition design response spectrum method is put forward. Furthermore, to do parameter optimization for base-isolation structures, a graphical approach is proposed by analyzing the relationship between the base shear ratio of a seismic base-isolation floor to non-seismic base-isolation one and frequency ratio-damping ratio, as well as the relationship between the seismic base-isolation floor displacement and frequency ratio-damping ratio. In addition, the influences of mode number and site classification on the seismic base-isolation structure and corresponding optimum parameters are investigated. It is demonstrated that the modified complex mode superposition design response spectrum method is more precise and more convenient to engineering applications for utilizing the damping reduction factors and the design response spectrum, and the proposed graphical approach for parameter optimization of seismic base-isolation structures is compendious and feasible.

Key Words
seismic base-isolation; modified complex modes superposition response spectrum method; graphical approach; parameter optimization; earthquake response

Address
Dong-Mei Huang and Wei-Xin Ren: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan ,410075 ,China; National Engineering Laboratory for High Speed Railway Construction, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410075, China; Yun Mao: Department of Civil Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Hubei, Wuhan, China

Abstract
In this paper, a numerical simulation study was conducted on the seismic behavior and ductility demand of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems with partially self-centering hysteresis. Unlike fully self-centering systems, partially self-centering systems display noticeable residual displacement after unloading is completed. Such partially self-centering behavior has been observed in a number of recently researched self-centering structural systems with energy dissipation devices. It is thus of interest to examine the seismic performance such as ductility demand of partially self-centering systems. In this study, a modified flag-shaped hysteresis model with residual displacement is proposed to represent the hysteretic behavior of partially self-centering structural systems. A parametric study considering the effect of variations in post-yield stiffness ratio, energy dissipation coefficient, and residual displacement ratio on the displacement ductility demand of partially self-centering systems was conducted using a suite of 192 scaled ground motions. The results of this parametric study reveal that increasing the post-yield stiffness, energy dissipation coefficient or residual displacement ratio of the partially self-centering systems generally leads to reduced ductility demand, especially for systems with lower yield strength.

Key Words
ductility; earthquake response; hysteresis; residual displacement; self-centering system

Address
Xiaobin Hu: School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430072, China; Yunfeng Zhang: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Abstract
In earthquake engineering area, the critical excitation method is an approach to find the most severe earthquake subjected to the structure. However, given some earthquake constraints, such as intensity and power, the critical excitations have spectral density functions that often resonate with the first modes of the structure. This paper presents a non-stationary critical excitation that is capable of exciting the main modes of the structure using a non-uniform power spectral density (PSD) that is similar to natural earthquakes. Thus, this paper proposes a new method to estimate the power and intensity of earthquakes. Finally, a new method for the linear seismic design of structures using a modified non-stationary critical excitation is proposed.

Key Words
random vibration; critical excitation; spectral density function; non-stationary input

Address
P. Ashtari: Department of Civil Engineering, Zanjan University, Iran; S.H. Ghasemi: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA

Abstract
This paper examines whether the \"effective period\" of bilinear isolation systems, as defined invariably in most current design codes, expresses in reality the period of vibration that appears in the horizontal axis of the design response spectrum. Starting with the free vibration response, the study proceeds with a comprehensive parametric analysis of the forced vibration response of a wide collection of bilinear isolation systems subjected to pulse and seismic excitations. The study employs Fourier and Wavelet analysis together with a powerful time domain identification method for linear systems known as the Prediction Error Method. When the response history of the bilinear system exhibits a coherent oscillatory trace with a narrow frequency band as in the case of free vibration or forced vibration response from most pulselike excitations, the paper shows that the

Key Words
seismic isolation; equivalent linearization; bilinear behavior; system identification; health monitoring; earthquake protection

Address
Nicos Makris: Division of Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, Greece; Georgios Kampas: Robertou Galli 27, Athens 11742, Greece

Abstract
Current Design Codes for Reinforced Concrete (RC) interior beam-column joints are based on limited experimental studies on the seismic behavior of eccentric joints. To supplement existing information, an experimental study was conducted that focused on the effect of eccentricity of the deeper beams with respect to the shallow beams. A total of eight one-third scale interior joints with beams of different depths were subjected to reverse cyclic loading. The primary variables in the test specimens were the amount of joint transverse reinforcement and the cross section of the shallow beams. The overall performance of each test assembly was found to be unsatisfactory in terms of joint shear strength, stiffness, energy dissipation and shear deformation. The results indicated that the vertical eccentricity of spandrel beams in this type of joint led to lower capacity in joint shear strength and severe damage of concrete in the joint core. Increasing the joint shear reinforcement was not effective to alter the failure mode from joint shear failure to beam yielding which is favorable for earthquake resistance design, whereas it was effective to reduce the crack width at the small loading stages. Based on the observed behavior, the shear stress of the joint core was suggested to be kept as low as possible for a safe and practical design of this type of joint.

Key Words
shear failure; joint; earthquake resistance; eccentricity; different beam depth

Address
G.H. Xing, T. Wu and X. Liu: 1School of Civil Engineering, Chang


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