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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 3, March 2013
 

Abstract
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the progressive and rapid spread of reinforced concrete (RC) has led to the adoption of mixed masonry-RC solutions, such as the confined masonry. However, together with structures conceived with a definite role for earthquake behaviour, the spreading of RC technology has caused the birth of mixed solutions inspired more by functional aspects than by structural ones, such as: internal masonry walls replaced by RC frames, RC walls inserted to build staircases or raising made from RC frames. Usually, since these interventions rise from a spontaneous build-up, any capacity design or ductility concepts are neglected being designed only to bear vertical loads: thus, the vulnerability assessment of this class becomes crucial. To investigate the non-linear seismic response of these structures, suitable models and effective numerical tools are needed. Among the various modelling approaches proposed in the literature and codes, the authors focus their attention on the equivalent frame model. After a brief description of the adopted model and its numerical validation, the authors aim to point out some specific peculiarities of the seismic response of mixed masonry-RC structures and their repercussions on safety verification procedures (referring in particular way to the non-linear static ones). In particular, the results of non-linear static analyses performed parametrically to various configurations representative of different interventions are discussed.

Key Words
mixed masonry-RC buildings; displacement based assessment; non-linear static analysis; equivalent frame model

Address
S.Cattari and S. Lagomarsino: Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (DICCA), Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa, University of Genoa, Italy

Abstract
This research was prompted by the paucity of specific code provisions regarding the design of short columns for shear. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the use of the normal shear design procedure of various codes may or may not be applied to reliably calculate the shear strength of short columns. Provisions of the codes American ACI 318M-08, Canadian CSA A23.3-04, Japanese AIJ Guidelines, New Zealand NZS 3101, European EN 1998 (EC8) parts 1 and 3, combined with EN 1992-1-1 (EC2), and draft fib Model Code 2010, as well as a strut-and-tie model are applied on short columns tested under cyclic loading that failed in shear. Actual shear resistances are compared to predictions, and the resulting shortcomings of the codes are identified. EN1998-3 appears to be the only code among those considered that may be reliably applied to estimate the shear resistance of short columns. Further, the proposed strut-and tie model can be a useful tool for the detailed design and assessment of short columns.

Key Words
short column; shear resistance; codes; safety; confinement; strut-and-tie

Address
M.L. Moretti: Faculty of Engineering (Civil),University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece; T.P. Tassios: Faculty of Engineering (Civil), NTUA, Athens, Greece

Abstract
The effect of soil structure interaction (SSI) on seismic response of a multi-degree-of-freedom structure isolated with a friction pendulum system (FPS) is studied. In the analysis, the soil is considered as an elastic continuum and is modeled using the finite element method. The effect of SSI on response of the structure is evaluated for twenty far-field and twenty near-fault earthquake ground motions. The effect of friction coefficient of sliding material of FPS on SSI is also studied. The results of the study show that the seismic response of the structure increases for majority of the earthquake ground motions due to SSI. The sliding displacement and base shear are underestimated if SSI effects are ignored in the seismic analysis of structures isolated with FPS.

Key Words
sliding bearing; friction pendulum system; soil-structure interaction; finite element method; farfield and near-fault ground motions

Address
A. Krishnamoorthy: Department of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal–576 104, Karnataka, India

Abstract
The current research focuses on the seismic vulnerability assessment of typical Southern Europe buildings, based on processing of a large set of observational damage data. The presented study constitutes a sequel of a previous research. The damage statistics have been enriched and a wider damage database (178578 buildings) is created compared to the one of the first presented paper (73468 buildings) with Damage Probability Matrices (DPMs) after the elaboration of the results from post-earthquake surveys carried out in the area struck by the 7-9-1999 near field Athens earthquake. The dataset comprises buildings which developed damage in several degree, type and extent. Two different parameters are estimated for the description of the seismic demand. After the classification of damaged buildings into structural types they are further categorized according to the level of damage and macroseismic intensity. The relative and the cumulative frequencies of the different damage states, for each structural type and each intensity level, are computed and presented, in terms of damage ratio. Damage Probability Matrices (DPMs) are obtained for typical structural types and they are compared to existing matrices derived from regions with similar building stock and soil conditions. A procedure is presented for the classification of those buildings which initially could not be discriminated into structural types due to restricted information and hence they had been disregarded. New proportional DPMs are developed and a correlation analysis is fulfilled with the existing vulnerability relations.

Key Words
seismic vulnerability; damage probability matrices (DPMs); vulnerability curves; postearthquake surveys

Address
Anastasia K. Eleftheriadou and Athanasios I. Karabinis: Laboratory of RC, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, B.Sofias 12, Xanthi 67100, Greece

Abstract
A number of structural and modal parameters are derived from the strong motion records of an instrumented G + 9 storeyed RC building during Bhuj earthquake, 26 Jan. 2001 in India. Some of the extracted parameters are peak floor accelerations, storey drift and modal characteristics. Modal parameters of the building are also compared with the values obtained from ambient vibration survey of the instrumented building after the occurrence of earthquake. These parameters are further used for calibrating the accuracy of fixed-base Finite Element (FE) models considering structural and non-structural elements. Some conclusions are drawn based on theoretical and experimental results obtained from strong motion records and time history analysis of FE models. An important outcome of the study is that strong motion peak acceleration profile in two horizontal directions is close to FE model in which masonry infill walls are modeled.

Key Words
instrumentation; strong motion record; ambient vibration testing; fixed base FE models; dynamic time history analysis

Address
J.P. Singh: Technical Specialist, Petrofac Intl. Ltd, Sharjah, UAE; Pankaj Agarwal, Ashok Kumar and S.K. Thakkar: Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Earthquake Eng., I.I.T. Roorkee, India


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