Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


eas
 
CONTENTS
Volume 20, Number 3, March 2021
 


Abstract
Torsional response of buildings is attributed to poor structural configurations in plan, which arises due to two factors – torsional eccentricity and torsional flexibility. Usually, building codes address effects due to the former. This study examines both of these effects. Buildings with torsional eccentricity (e.g., those with large eccentricity) and with torsional flexibility (those with torsional mode as a fundamental mode) demand large deformations of vertical elements resisting lateral loads, especially those along the building perimeter in plan. Lateral-torsional responses are studied of unsymmetrical buildings through elastic and inelastic analyses using idealised single-storey building models (with two degrees of freedom). Displacement demands on vertical elements distributed in plan are non-uniform and sensitive to characteristics of both structure and earthquake ground motion. Limits are proposed to mitigate lateral-torsional effects, which guides in proportioning vertical elements and restricts amplification of lateral displacement in them and to avoid torsional mode as the first mode. Nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of multi-storey buildings are used to validate the limits proposed.

Key Words
torsional eccentricity; torsional flexibility; lateral-torsional response; displacement demands; nonlinear dynamic analyses

Address
G. Tamizharasi:Department of Civil Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, India

A. Meher Prasad:Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

C.V.R. Murty:Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

Abstract
In the current work, a series of seismic analyses of one-storey asymmetrical reinforced concrete (R/C) framed buildings is accomplished while the effect of soil deformability on the structural response is investigated. A comparison is performed between the simplified elastic behavior of R/C elements according to the structural regulations'instructions to the possible non-linear behavior of R/C elements under actual circumstances. The target of the time history analyses is the elucidation of the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) effect in the seismic behavior of common R/C structures by examining the possible elastic or elastoplastic behavior of R/C sections because of the redistribution of the internal forces by employing a realistic damage index. The conclusions acquired from the presented elastic and elastoplastic analyses supply practical guidelines towards the safer design of structures.

Key Words
seismic analysis; soil-structure interaction; time history analysis; reinforced concrete structures; asymmetrical structures; elastoplastic analysis, damage index

Address
Paraskevi K. Askouni:Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 26504, Patras, Greece

Dimitris L. Karabalis:Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 26504, Patras, Greece

Abstract
Most of the existing seismic codes for RC buildings consider only a scenario earthquake for analysis, often characterized by the response spectrum at the specified location. However, any real earthquake event often involves occurrences of multiple earthquakes within a few hours or days, possessing similar or even higher energy than the first earthquake. This critically impairs the rehabilitation measures thereby resulting in the accumulation of structural damages for subsequent earthquakes after the first earthquake. Also, the existing seismic provisions account for the non-linear response of an RC building frame implicitly by specifying a constant response modification factor (R) in a linear elastic design. However, the 'R' specified does not address the changes in structural configurations of RC moment-resisting frames (RC MRFs) viz., building height, number of bays present, bay width, irregularities arising out of mass and stiffness changes, etc. resulting in changed dynamic characteristics of the structural system. Hence, there is an imperative need to assess the seismic performance under sequential earthquake ground motions, considering the adequacy of code-specified 'R' in the representation of dynamic characteristics of RC buildings. Therefore, the present research is focused on the evaluation of the non-linear response of medium-rise 3D RC MRFs with and without vertical irregularities under bi-directional sequential earthquake ground motions using non-linear dynamic analysis. It is evident from the results that collapse probability increases, and 'R' reduces significantly for various RC MRFs subjected to sequential earthquakes, pronouncing the vulnerability and inadequacy of estimation of design base shear by code-specified 'R' under sequential earthquakes.

Key Words
incremental dynamic analysis; non-linear response; ductility demand; response reduction factor; sequential earthquakes

Address
Praveen Oggu:Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, Warangal, Telangana - 506004, India

K. Gopikrishna:Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, Warangal, Telangana - 506004, India

Abstract
The gap provided between adjacent structures in the metropolitan cities is mostly narrow due to architectural and financial issues. Consequently, structural pounding occurs between adjacent structures during earthquakes. It causes damages, ranging from minor local to more severe ones, especially in the case of seismically isolated buildings, due to their higher displacements. However, due to the increased flexibility of isolated buildings, the problem could become more detrimental to such structures. The effect of the seismic pounding of moat walls on the response of buildings isolated by Triple Friction Pendulum Bearing (TFPB) is investigated in this paper. To this propose, two symmetric three-dimensional models, including single-story and five-story buildings, are modeled in Opensees. Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NTHA) are performed for seismic evaluation. Also, five different sizes with four different sets of friction coefficients are considered for base isolators to cover a whole range of base isolation systems with various geometry configurations and fundamental period. The results are investigated in terms of base shear, buildings' drift, and roof acceleration. Results indicated a profound effect of poundings against moat walls. In situations of potential pounding, in some cases, the influence of impact on seismic responses of multi-story buildings was more remarkable.

Key Words
nonlinear time history analysis; nonlinear Hertzdamp model; base isolation; pounding; triple friction pendulum bearing

Address
Ayoub Shakouri:Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri: Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Zahra Sadat Miri:Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Hamed Rajaei Lak: Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Abstract
Architectural design decisions and structural systems arrangements affect their earthquake behaviors significantly of reinforced concrete building in Turkey. Because the performances as safe and economical against earthquake loads of reinforced concrete buildings can be provided with especially design decisions in the architectural design stage. This matter reveals the importance of design decisions in the architectural design phase and the right structural system arrangement. The purpose of this study, the short-column situation frequently observed in reinforced concrete buildings after the earthquakes occurred in Turkey are to examine comparatively the effects on behavior and the rough construction cost of the building. The obtained results show that the short column circumstance composed due to different reasons negatively affects the earthquake performance of the reinforced concrete buildings and increases the rough construction cost. This matter shows that the measures to be taken against short column formation should be foreseen especially at the architectural design stage.

Key Words
short column; construction cost; infill wall; earthquake damage; STA4-Cad

Address
Şenol Gursoy:Department of Civil Engineering, Karabuk University, 78050 Karabuk, Turkey

Aykut Cavusoglu:Department of Civil Engineering, Karabuk University, 78050 Karabuk, Turkey


Abstract
The majority of Turkey's geography is at risk of earthquakes. Within the borders of Turkey, including the two major active faults contain the North-Eastern and Eastern Anatolia, earthquake, threatening the safety of life and property. On January 24, 2020, an earthquake of magnitude 6.8 occurred at 8:55 p.m. local time. According to the data obtained from the stations in the region, peak ground acceleration in the east-west direction was measured as 0.292 g from the 2308 coded station in Sivrice. It is thought that the earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 6.8 was developed on the Sivrice-Puturge segment of the Eastern Anatolian Fault, which is a left lateral strike slip fault, and the tear developed in an area of 50-55 km. Aftershocks ranging from 0.8 to 5.1 Mw occurred following the main shock on the Eastern Anatolian Fault. The earthquake caused severe structural damages in Elazig and neighboring provinces. As a result of the field investigations carried out in this study, significant damage levels were observed in the buildings since it did not meet the criteria in the earthquake codes. Within the study's scope, the structural damage cases in reinforced concrete and masonry structures were investigated. Many structural deficiencies and mistakes such as non-ductile details, poor concrete quality, short columns, strong beams–weak columns mechanism, large and heavy overhangs, masonry building damages and inadequate reinforcement arrangements were observed. Requirements of seismic codes are discussed and compared with observed earthquake damage.

Key Words
damage assessment; Elazig-Sivrice earthquake; building performance

Address
Omer Faruk Nemutlu:Centre for Energy the Environment and Natural Disasters and Department of Civil Engineering, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey

Bilal Balun:Centre for Energy the Environment and Natural Disasters and Department of Architecture, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey

Ali Sari:Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
On September 12, 2016, the Gyeongju earthquake occurred in the south-eastern region of the Korean peninsula. The event was ranked as the largest magnitude earthquake (=5.8) since instrumental recording was started by the Korean Metrological Administration (KMA) in 1978. The objective of this study is to provide information obtained from the 2016 Gyeongju earthquake and to propose a procedure estimating seismic risk of a typical old RC building for past and potential earthquakes. Ground motions are simulated using the point source model at 4941 grid locations in the Korean peninsula that resulted from the Gyeongju earthquake and from potential future earthquakes with the same hypocenter considering different soil conditions. Nonlinear response history analyses are conducted for each grid location using a three-story gravity-designed reinforced concrete (RC) frame that most closely represents conventional old school and public buildings. Then, contour maps are constructed to present the seismic risk associated with this building for the Gyeongju earthquake and potential future scenario earthquakes. These contour maps can be useful in the development of a mitigation plan for potential earthquake damage to school and public buildings at all grid locations on the Korean peninsula.

Key Words
ground motion; point source model; scenario earthquake; soil condition; moment frame; risk

Address
Hyun Woo Jee:Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea

Sang Whan Han:Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Natural hazards like earthquakes, high winds, and tsunami are a threat all the time for multi-story structures. The environmental forces cannot be clogged but the structures can be prevented from these natural hazards by using protective systems. The structural control can be achieved by using protective systems like the passive, active, semi-active, and hybrid protective systems; but the semi-active protective system has gained importance because of its adaptability to the active systems and reliability of the passive systems. Therefore, a semi-active protective system for the earthquake forces has been adopted in this work. Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper is used in the structure as a semi-active protective system; which is connected to the current driver and proposed controller. The Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and reliable PID controller are two proposed controllers, which will actuate the MR damper and the desired force is generated to mitigate the vibration of the structural response subjected to the earthquake. PID controller and reliable PID controller are designed and tuned using Ziegler-Nichols tuning technique along with the MR damper simulated in Simulink toolbox and MATLAB to obtain the reduced vibration in a three-story benchmark structure. The earthquake is considered to be uncertain; where the proposed control algorithm works well during the presence of earthquake; this paper considers robustness to provide satisfactory resilience against this uncertainty. In this work, two different earthquakes are considered like El-Centro and Northridge earthquakes for simulation with different controllers. In this paper performances of the structure with and without two controllers are compared and results are discussed.

Key Words
seismic response; semi-active system; MR damper; PID controller; reliable controller

Address
B.G. Kavyashree:Manipal School of Architecture and Planning, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

Shantharama Patil:Manipal School of Architecture and Planning, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

Vidya S. Rao:Department of Instrumentation & Control Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology,
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India - 576105


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2021 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-2-736-6800 (GAE, EAS, WAS, ANR), +82-42-828-7995 (SEM, SCS, SSS) Fax : +82-2-736-6801, Email: info@techno-press.com