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CONTENTS
Volume 20, Number 1, January 2021
 


Abstract
The occurrence of progressive collapse induced by the removal of the vertical load-bearing element in the structure, because of fire or earthquake, has been a significant challenge between structural engineers. Progressive collapse is defined as the complete failure or failure of a part of the structure, initiating with a local rupture in a part of the building and can threaten the stability of the structure. In the current study, the behavior of the structures equipped with a cylindrical friction damper, when the vertical load-bearing elements are eliminated, is considered in two cases: 1-The load-bearing element is removed under the gravity load, and 2-The load-bearing element is removed due to the earthquake lateral forces. In order to obtain a generalized result in the seismic case, 22 pair motions presented in FEMA p 695 are applied to the structures. The study has been conducted using the vertical push down analysis for the case (1), and the nonlinear time-history analysis for the second case using OpenSEES software for 5,10, and 15-story steel frames. Results indicate that, in the first case, the load coefficient, and accordingly the strength of the structure equipped with cylindrical friction dampers are increased considerably. Furthermore, the results from the second case demonstrate that the displacements, and consequently the forces imposed to the structure in the buildings equipped with the cylindrical friction damper substantially was reduced. An optimum slip load is defined in the friction dampers, which permits the damper to start its frictional damping from this threshold load. Therefore, the optimum slip load of the damper is calculated and discussed for both cases.

Key Words
progressive collapse, cylindrical friction damper, push-down analysis, nonlinear dynamic analysis, slip load

Address
Masoud Mirtaheri, Zobeydeh Omidi, Mojtaba Salkhordeh and Hamid Mirzaeefard:Department of Civil Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
A new seismic design methodology has been developed for precast concrete diaphragms. Seismic design factors were used to be applied on top of diaphragm seismic design forces in the current code. These factors, established through extensive parametric studies, align diaphragm design strengths with different seismic performance targets. A simplified evaluation structure with a single-bay plan was used in the parametric studies. This simplified evaluation structure is reasonable and cost-effective as it can comprehensively cover structural geometries and design parameters. However, further verification and investigation are required to apply these design factors to prototype structures with realistic layouts. This paper presents diaphragm design of several precast concrete office buildings using the new design methodology. The applicability of the design factor to the office building was evaluated and verified through nonlinear time history analyses. The seismic behavior and performance of the diaphragm were investigated for the precast concrete office buildings. It was found that the design factor established for the new design methodology is applicable to the realistic precast concrete office buildings.

Key Words
precast concrete diaphragms; office buildings; nonlinear time history analysis; seismic design

Address
Dichuan Zhang:School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Narzarbayev University, Kazakhstan
Robert B. Fleischman :Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, U.S.A.
Deuckhang Lee:Department of Architectural Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea

Abstract
According to ACI 224.3R-95 (ACI, 2013), construction joints (cold joint) in the column are to be provided at the top of floor slab for column continuing to the next floor and underside of floor slab and beam. A recent study reveals that providing cold joint of the mentioned location significantly reduced the seismic performance of the frame structures. Since, the construction joints in multi-story frame structures normally provided at the top of the floor slabs and at soffit of the beam in the column. This study investigated the effect of construction joint at various location in the column of beam-column joint such as at the top of floor slab, soffit level of the beam, half the depth of beam below the soffit of the beam and at a full depth of the beam below the soffit of the beam. The study revealed that there is an improvement in seismic capacity of the specimens as the location of cold joint is placed away from the soffit of the beam for lower story column.

Key Words
beam-column joint; construction joint; seismic capacity; reversed cyclic loading; varying location

Address
Jonathan Vanlalruata and Comingstarful Marthong:Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, Shillong 793003, India

Abstract
By means of installing sloped rolling-type seismic isolators (SRI), the horizontal acceleration transmitted to the to-be-protected object above can be effectively and significantly reduced under external disturbance. To prevent the maximum horizontal displacement response of SRI from reaching a threshold, designing large and conservative damping force for SRI might be required, which will also enlarge the transmitted acceleration response. In a word, when adopting seismic isolation, minimizing acceleration or displacement responses is always a trade-off. Therefore, this paper proposes that by exploiting the possible information provided by an earthquake early warning system, the damping force applied to SRI which can better control both acceleration and displacement responses might be determined in advance and accordingly adjusted in a semi-active control manner. By using a large number of ground motion records with peak ground acceleration not less than 80 gal, the numerical results present that the maximum horizontal displacement response of SRI is highly correlated with and proportional to some important parameters of input excitations, the velocity pulse energy rate and peak velocity in particular. A control law employing the basic form of hyperbolic tangent function and two objective functions are considered in this study for conceptually developing suitable control algorithms. Compared with the numerical results of simply designing a constant, large damping factor to prevent SRI from pounding, adopting the recommended control algorithms can have more than 60% reduction of acceleration responses in average under the excitations. More importantly, it is effective in reducing acceleration responses under approximately 98% of the excitations.

Key Words
sloped rolling-type seismic isolator; earthquake early warning; velocity pulse energy rate; peak velocity; control algorithm

Address
Ting-Yu Hsu, Chih-Hua Huang and Shiang-Jung Wang:Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology,
No.43, Sec.4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106335, Taiwan

Abstract
In urban cities, buildings were built in the neighborhood, these buildings influence each other through structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) and seismic pounding due to limited separation distance in-between. Generally, the effects of the interaction between soil and structure are disregarded during seismic design and analysis of superstructure. However, the system of soil-base adversely changes structural behavior and response demands. Thus, the vibration characteristics plus the seismic response of a building are not able to be independent of those in adjacent buildings. The interaction between structure, soil, and structure investigates the action of the attendance of adjacent buildings to the others by the interaction effect of the sub-soil under dynamic disturbances. The main purpose of this research is to analyze the effects of SSSI and seismic pounding on the behavior of adjacent buildings. The response of a single structure or two adjacent structures with shallow raft base lying on soft soil are studied. Three dimensions finite element models are developed to investigate the effects of pounding; gap distance; conditions of soil; stories number; a mass of adjacent building and ground excitation frequency on the seismic responses and vibration characteristics of the structures. The variation in the story displacement, story shear, and story moment responses demands are studied to evaluate the presence effect of the adjacent buildings. Numerical results acquired using conditions of soil models are compared with the condition of fixed support and adjacent building models to a single building model. The peak responses of story displacement, story moment, and story shear are studied.

Key Words
adjacent buildings; soil-structure interaction; seismic demands; time history analysis; seismic pounding

Address
Shehata E Abdel Raheem, Aly G.A. AbdelShafy, Mohamed M. Ahmed:Civil Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt
Tarek M.A. Alazrak:Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA), Cairo 11762, Egypt
Yasser A.S. Gamal:Civil Engineering Dept., High Institute of Engineering Technology, El Mina, Egypt

Abstract
This paper focuses on the development and assessment of the expected damage for the rocking response of rigid anchored blocks, with irregular geometry and non-uniform mass distribution, considering the site conditions and the seismicity of Mexico City. The non-linear behavior of the restrainers is incorporated to evaluate the pure tension and tension-shear failure mechanisms. A probabilistic framework is performed covering a wide range of block sizes, slenderness ratios and eccentricities using physics-based ground motion simulation. In order to incorporate the uncertainties related to the propagation of far-field earthquakes with a significant contribution to the seismic hazard at study sites, it was simulated a set of scenarios using a stochastic summation methods of small-earthquakes records, considered as Empirical Green's Function (EGFs). As Engineering Demand Parameter (EDP), the absolute value of the maximum block rotation normalized by the body slenderness, as a function of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) is adopted. The results show that anchorages are more efficient for blocks with slenderness ratio between two and three, while slenderness above four provide a better stability when they are not restrained. Besides, there is a range of peak intensities where anchored blocks located in soft soils are less vulnerable with respect to those located in firm soils. The procedure used in here allows to take decisions about risk, reliability and resilience assessment of different types of contents, and it is easily adaptable to other seismic environments.

Key Words
rocking vulnerability; uncertainty; non-linear modelling; irregularity, anchorage

Address
Salvador Ramos, Eduardo Reinoso, Miguel Leonardo-Suarez and Marco A. Torres:Instituto de Ingeniería, Circuito Escolar, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, CDMX, Coyoacán, México
Cesar Arredondo:E.R.N. Evaluación de Riesgos Naturales y Antropogénicos, Ciudad de México, México

Abstract
Ground motions recorded in near-fault sites, where the rupture propagates toward the site, are significantly different from those observed in far-fault regions. In this research, finite element modeling is used to investigate the effect of pile cap stiffness on the seismic response of soil-pile-structure systems under near-fault ground motions. The Von Wolffersdorff hypoplastic model with the intergranular strain concept is applied for modeling of granular soil (sand) and the behavior of structure is considered to be non-linear. Eight fault-normal near-field ground motion records, recorded on rock, are applied to the model. The numerical method developed is verified by comparing the results with an experimental test (shaking table test) for a soil-pile-structure system. The results, obtained from finite element modeling under near-fault ground motions, show that when the value of cap stiffness increases, the drift ratio of the structure decreases, whereas the pile relative displacement increases. Also, the residual deformations in the piles are due to the non-linear behavior of soil around the piles.

Key Words
soil-pile-structure; near-fault ground motions; hypoplasticity; flexibility; finite element method

Address
Saeed Abbasi, Alireza Ardakani and Mansoor Yakhchalian:Department of Civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract
A comprehensive study on seismic performance of wood frame building in hilly regions is presented. Specifically, seismic fragility assessment of a typical wood frame building at various locations of the northeast region of India are demonstrated. A three-dimensional simplified model of the wood frame building is developed with due consideration to nonlinear behaviour of shear walls under lateral loads. In doing so, a trilinear model having improved capability to capture the force-deformation behaviour of shear walls including the strength degradation at higher deformations is proposed. The improved capability of the proposed model to capture the force-deformation behaviour of shear wall is validated by comparing with the existing experimental results. The structural demand values are obtained from nonlinear time history analysis (NLTHA) of the three-dimensional wood frame model considering the effect of uncertainty due to record to record variation of ground motions and structural parameters as well. The ground motion bins necessary for NLTHA are prepared based on the identified hazard level from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the considered locations. The maximum likelihood estimates of the lognormal fragility parameters are obtained from the observed failure cases and the seismic fragilities corresponding to different locations are estimated accordingly. The results of the numerical study show that the wood frame constructions commonly found in the region are likely to suffer minor cracking or damage in the shear walls under the earthquake occurrence corresponding to the estimated seismic hazard level; however, poses negligible risk against complete collapse of such structures.

Key Words
wood frame building; Northeast India; nonlinear time history analysis; maximum likelihood estimates; Seismic Fragility Analysis

Address
Swarup Ghosh and Subrata Chakraborty:Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah, India 711103

Abstract
Significant progress in the oil and gas industry advances the application of pipeline into an intelligent era, which poses rigorous requirements on pipeline safety, reliability, and maintainability, especially when crossing seismic zones. In general, strike-slip faults are prone to induce large deformation leading to local buckling and global rupture eventually. To evaluate the performance and safety of pipelines in this situation, numerical simulations are proved to be a relatively accurate and reliable technique based on the built-in physical models and advanced grid technology. However, the computational cost is prohibitive, so one has to wait for a long time to attain a calculation result for complex large-scale pipelines. In this manuscript, an efficient and accurate surrogate model based on machine learning is proposed for strain demand prediction of buried X80 pipelines subjected to strike-slip faults. Specifically, the support vector regression model serves as a surrogate model to learn the high-dimensionally nonlinear relationship which maps multiple input variables, including pipe geometries, internal pressures, and strike-slip displacements, to output variables (namely tensile strains and compressive strains). The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are validated by numerical studies considering different effects caused by structural sizes, internal pressure, and strike-slip movements.

Key Words
strike-slip faults; X80 pipeline; surrogate model; strain demand prediction; support vector regression

Address
Junyao Xie, Lu Zhang,Stevan Dubljevic:Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada
Qian Zheng:National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, 102249, China/ Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2W2, Canada
Xiaoben Liu,Hong Zhang:National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, 102249, China


Abstract
Deficient beam-column joints of reinforced concrete (RC) structures designed to older practices and codes often lead to destructive local or global failures. A strengthening technique for these joints based on the use of the new and innovative Carbon-FRP (C-FRP) ropes is presented and investigated. The C-FRP ropes are diagonally placed in superficial notches on the two sides of the joint. Two full scale external substandard joint subassemblages with the same characteristics, one unstrengthened and one strengthened with diagonally applied C-FRP ropes, are constructed and tested in cyclic loading. Special attention has been given to the elaboration of the acquired test measurements. The extracted conclusions are based on the comparative study of the hysteretic responses of the specimens, the observed maximum load envelopes, the comparisons of the joint body shear deformations as measured using diagonally mounted LVTDs, the calculated nominal principal stresses developed in the joint regions, the assessed joint damage as expressed by the damage index by Park and Ang and finally the calculated values of the equivalent damping ratio. From these comparisons it is concluded that application of diagonally mounted C-FRP ropes on the two sides of the joint body of exterior connections is an efficient easy-to-apply technique for the strengthening of substandard RC joints.

Key Words
strengthening; C-FRP ropes; beam-column joints; reinforced concrete structures; cyclic loading

Address
Chris G. Karayannis and Emmanouil Golias:Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece


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