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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 5, May 2017
 

Abstract
Frictional dampers are used in structural engineering as means of passive control. Meanwhile, frictional damper shave a disadvantage compared to viscous rivals since the slippage force must be exceeded to activate the device, and cannot be ideal full range of possible events. The concept of semi-active control is utilized to overcome this shortcoming. In this paper, a new semi-active frictional damper called Smart Adjustable Frictional (SAF) damper is introduced. SAF damper consists of hydraulic, electronic units and sensors which are all linked with an active control discipline. SAF acts as a smart damper which can adapt its slippage threshold during a dynamic excitation by measuring and controlling the structural response. The novelty of this damper is, while it controls the response of the structure in real time with acceptable time delay. The paper also reports on the results of a series of experiments which have been performed on SAF dampers to obtain their prescribed hysteretic behavior for various control algorithms. The results show that SAF can produce the desired slippage load of various algorithms in real time. Numerical models incorporating control simulations are also made to obtain the hysteretic response of the system which agrees closely with test results.

Key Words
frictional damper; energy dissipation; passive control; semi-active control; SAF damper

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
The effects of past earthquakes have demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of confined masonry structures (CMSs) to earthquakes. The results of experimental analysis indicate that damage to these structures depends on lateral displacement applied to the walls. Seismic evaluation lacks an analytical approach because of the complexity of the behavior of this type of structure; an empirical approach is often used for this purpose. Seismic assessment and risk analysis of CMSs, especially in area have a large number of such buildings is difficult and could be riddled with error. The present study used analytical and numerical models to develop a simplified nonlinear displacement-based approach for seismic assessment of a CMS. The methodology is based on the concept of ESDOF and displacement demand and is compared with displacement capacity at the characteristic period of vibration according to performance level. Displacement demand was identified using the nonlinear displacement spectrum for a specified limit state. This approach is based on a macro model and nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis of a 3D prototype structure taking into account uncertainty of the mechanical properties and results in a simple, precise method for seismic assessment of a CMS. To validate the approach, a case study was considered in the form of an analytical fragility curve which was then compared with the precise method.

Key Words
confined masonry; displacement based assessment; fragility curves; vulnerability assessment; performance based; analytical model; OpenSees; ESDOF

Address
Civil Engineering Department, Islamshahr Branch of the Islamic Azad University (IAU), Islamshahr, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
To investigate the seismic performance of Y-shaped eccentrically braced frames fabricated with high-strength steel (Y-HSS-EBFs), a shake table test of a 1:2 scaled three-story Y-HSS-EBF specimen was performed. The input wave for the shake table test was generated by the ground motions of El Centro, Taft, and Lanzhou waves. The dynamic properties, acceleration, displacement, and strain responses were obtained from the test specimen and compared with previous test results. In addition, a finite element model of the test specimen was established using the SAP2000 software. Results from the numerical analysis were compared with the test specimen results. During the shake table test, the specimen exhibited sufficient overall structural stiffness and safety but suffered some localized damage. The lateral stiffness of the structure degenerated during the high seismic intensity earthquake. The maximum elastic and elastoplastic interstory drift of the test specimen for different peak ground accelerations were 1/872 and 1/71, respectively. During the high seismic intensity earthquake, the links of the test specimen entered the plastic stage to dissipate the earthquake energy, while other structural members remained in the elastic stage. The Y-HSS-EBF is a safe, dual system with reliable seismic performance. The numerical analysis results were in useful agreement with the test results. This finding indicated that the finite element model in SAP2000 provided a very accurate prediction of the Y-HSS-EBF structure

Key Words
eccentrically braced frames (EBFs); high-strength steel (HSS); shake table test; dynamic properties; seismic performance; numerical simulation

Address
Ming Lian and Mingzhou Su: School of Civil Engineering, Xi´an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi´an 710055, P.R. China

Ming Lian: Post-doctoral Mobile Stations of Material Science and Engineering, Xi´an University of Architecture and Technology,Xi´an 710055, P.R. China

Abstract
Recently, Friction dampers become popular due to the desirable performance in the energy dissipation of lateral loads. A lot of research which has been conducted on these dampers results in developing friction dampers with low sensitivity to the number of cycles and temperature increases. Friction dampers impose high residual drifts to the buildings because of low post-yield stiffness of the damper which results from increasing lateral displacement and period of buildings. This issue can be more critical under strong aftershocks which results in increasing of structural damages. In this paper, in addition to the assessment of aftershock on steel buildings equipped with friction dampers, methods for controlling residual drifts and decreasing the costs of retrofitting are investigated. Utilizing rigid connections as a lateral dual system and activating lateral stiffness of gravity columns by adding elastic braces are as an example of effective methods investigated in this research. The results of nonlinear time history analyses on the low to medium rise steel frames equipped with friction dampers illustrate a rise in residual drifts as the result of aftershocks. In addition, the results show that different slip loads of friction damper can affect the residual drifts. Furthermore, elastic stories in comparison to rigid connections can reduce residual drifts of buildings in an effective fashion, when most slip loads of friction dampers are considered.

Key Words
steel buildings; residual displacement; cylindrical frictional dampers; mianshock-aftershock earthquake; nonlinear time history analysis

Address
Civil Engineering Faculty, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, No. 1346, ValiAsr -Street, Mirdamad Intersection, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran, Iran


Abstract
According to the definition, progressive collapse could occur due to the initial partial failure of the structural members which by spreading to the adjacent members, could result in partial or overall collapse of the structure. Up to now, most researchers have investigated the progressive collapse due to explosion, fire or impact loads. But new research has shown that the seismic load could also be a factor for initiation of the progressive collapse. In this research, the progressive collapse capacity for the 5 and 15-story steel special moment resisting frames using push-down nonlinear static analysis, and nonlinear dynamic analysis under the gravity loads specified in the GSA Guidelines, were studied. After identifying the critical members, in order to investigate the seismic progressive collapse, the 5-story steel special moment resisting frame was analyzed by the nonlinear time history analysis under the effect of earthquakes with different characteristics. In order to account for the initial damage, one of the critical columns was weakened at the initiation of the earthquake or its Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). The results of progressive collapse analyses showed that the potential of progressive collapse is considerably dependent upon location of the removed column and the number of stories, also the results of seismic progressive collapse showed that the dynamic response of column removal under the seismic load is completely dependent on earthquake characteristics like Arias intensity, PGA and earthquake frequency contents.

Key Words
progressive collapse; push-down nonlinear static analysis; nonlinear dynamic analysis; seismic load; earthquake frequency content; arias intensity

Address
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Babol University and Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract
Results of an extensive study aiming to properly extend the well known pushover analysis into 3-D problems of asymmetric buildings are presented in this paper. The proposed procedure uses simple, 3 DOF, one-story models with shear-beam type elements in order to quantify the effects of inelastic torsional response of such buildings. Correction coefficients for the response quantities at the \"stiff\" and \"flexible\" sides are calculated using results from non-linear time history analyses of the simple models. Their values are then applied to the results of a simple, plane pushover analysis of the detailed building models. Results from the application of the new method for a set of three, conventionally designed, five-story buildings with high values of uniaxial eccentricities are compared with those obtained from multiple non-linear dynamic time history analyses, as well as from similar pushover methods addressing the same problem. This initial evaluation indicates that the proposed procedure is a clear improvement over the simple (conventional) pushover method and, in most cases, more accurate and reliable than the other methods considered. The accuracy, however, of all these methods is reduced substantially when they are applied to torsionally flexible buildings. Thus, for such challenging problems, use of inelastic dynamic analyses for a set of two component earthquake motions appears to be the preferable solution.

Key Words
asymmetric buildings; torsional behavior; pushover analysis; shear beam models

Address
Dimitrios K. Baros and Stavros A. Anagnostopoulos: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, 26500, Greece

Dimitrios K. Baros: Department of Civil Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Patras, 26334, Greece


Abstract
Slender structures like reinforced concrete (RC) chimneys are severely damaged or collapsed during severe wind storms or strong ground motions all over the world. Today, with the improvement in technology and industry, most factories need these slender structures with increasing height and decreasing in shell thickness causing vulnerable to winds and earthquakes. Main objectives in this study are to make structural wind and earthquake analysis of RC chimneys by using a well-known international standard CICIND 2001 and real recorded time history accelerations and to clarify weak points of these tall and slender structures against these severe natural actions. Findings of this study show that maximum tensile stress and shear stress approximately increase 103.90% and 312.77% over or near the openings on the body of the RC chimneys that cause brittle failure around this region of openings.

Key Words
wind; earthquake; reinforced concrete; industrial; opening; chimney; stack

Address
Erdem Turkeli: Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Construction Department, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey

Zeki Karaca: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ondokuz May

Abstract
The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) based seismic fragility analysis (SFA) approach allows defining more realistic relationship between failure probability and seismic intensity. However, the approach requires simulating large number of non-linear dynamic analyses of structure for reliable estimate of fragility. It makes the approach computationally challenging. The response surface method (RSM) based metamodeling approach which replaces computationally involve complex mechanical model of a structure is found to be a viable alternative in this regard. An adaptive moving least squares method (MLSM) based RSM in the MCS framework is explored in the present study for efficient SFA of existing structures. In doing so, the repetition of seismic intensity for complete generation of fragility curve is avoided by including this as one of the predictors in the response estimate model. The proposed procedure is elucidated by considering a non-linear SDOF system and an existing reinforced concrete frame considered to be located in the Guwahati City of the Northeast region of India. The fragility results are obtained by the usual least squares based and the proposed MLSM based RSM and compared with that of obtained by the direct MCS technique to study the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Key Words
seismic fragility analysis; Monte Carlo simulation; response surface method; adaptive moving least squares method

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, India

Abstract
In this study, result of a field investigation of railway traffic-induced vibrations is provided to examine acceptability levels of ground vibration and to evaluate the serviceability of a liquid-storage tank. Free field attenuation of the amplitudes as a function of distance is derived by six accelerometers and compared with a well-known half-space Bornitz´s analytical solution which considers the loss of the amplitude of waves due to geometrical damping and material damping of Rayleigh. Bornitz´s solution tends to overlap vertical free field vibration compared with in-situ measured records. The vibrations of the liquid-storage tank were compared with the USA, Federal Transportation Railroad Administration (FTA) criteria for acceptable ground-borne vibrations and with the criteria in DIN 4150-3 German standard. Comparing the thresholds stated in DIN 4150-3, absolute peak particle velocities are within the safe limits, however according to FTA velocity level at the top of the water tank exceeds the allowable limits. Furthermore, it is intended to indicate experimentally the effect of the kinematic interaction caused by the foundation of the structure on the free-field vibrations.

Key Words
response of liquid-storage tank, railway traffic, in situ measurements, free field vibrations

Address
Fatih Goktepe: Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin, Turkey

Huseyin S. Kuyuk and Erkan Celebi: Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey

Huseyin S. Kuyuk: Department of Earthquake Engineering, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University,
34684, Cengelkoy, Istanbul, Turkey


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