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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 3, March 2017
 

Abstract
In this study, two geometrically identical multi-storey steel buildings with different lateral load resisting systems are structurally analyzed under same earthquake conditions and they are compared with respect to their construction costs of their structural systems. One of the systems is a steel structure with eccentrically steel braced frames. The other one is a RC wall-steel frame system, that is a steel framed structure in combination with a reinforced concrete core and shear walls of minimum thickness that the national code allows. As earthquake resisting systems, steel braced frames and reinforced concrete shear walls, for both cases are located on identical places in either building. Floors of both buildings will be of reinforced concrete slabs of same thickness resting on composite beams. The façades are assumed to be covered identically with light-weight aluminum cladding with insulation. Purpose of use for both buildings is an office building of eight stories. When two systems are structurally analyzed by FEM (finite element method) and dimensionally compared, the dual one comes up with almost 34% less cost of construction with respect to their structural systems. This in turn means that, by using a dual system in earthquake zones such as Turkey, for multi-storey steel buildings with RC floors, more economical solutions can be achieved. In addition, slender steel columns and beams will add to that and consequently more space in rooms is achieved.

Key Words
steel building with braced frames; steel building with RC wall-steel frames; dual structural systems; earthquake resisting frames; composite beams; construction cost comparison

Address
Department of Architecture, Structural and Earthquake Engineering Working Group, Istanbul Technical University, Taskisla Campus, 34437 Taksim, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
This paper presents a multimodal adaptive nonlinear static method of analysis that, differently from the nonlinear static methods suggested in seismic codes, does not require the definition of the equivalent Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) system to evaluate the seismic response of structures. First, the proposed method is formulated for the assessment of r.c. plane frames and then it is extended to 3D framed structures. Furthermore, the proposed nonlinear static approach is re-elaborated as a displacement-based design method that does not require the use of the behaviour factor and takes into account explicitly the plastic deformation capacity of the structure. Numerical applications to r.c. plane frames and to a 3D framed structure with in-plan irregularity are carried out to illustrate the attractive features as well as the limitations of the proposed method. Furthermore, the numerical applications evidence the uncertainty about the suitability of the displacement demand prediction obtained by the nonlinear static methods commonly adopted.

Key Words
pushover analysis; multimodal procedure; adaptive procedure; displacement based design; inelastic response of structures

Address
Pietro Lenza, Marcello Pellecchia: Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples \"Federico II\", P. V. Tecchio, 80125, Naples

Aurelio Ghersi, Edoardo M. Marino: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, V. Santa Sofia, 64, 95123, Catania

Abstract
Base isolation is a quite practical control strategy for enhancing the response of structural systems induced by strong ground motions. Due to the dynamic effects of base isolation systems, reduction in the interstory drifts of the superstructure is often achieved at the expense of high base displacement level, which may lead to instability of the structure or non-practical designs for the base isolators. To reduce the base displacement, several hybrid structural control strategies have been studied over the past decades. This study investigates a particular strategy that employs Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) for improving the performance of base-isolated structures and unlike previous studies, specifically focuses on the effectiveness of this hybrid control strategy in structures that are equipped with nonlinear base isolation systems. To consider the nonlinearities of base isolation systems, a Bouc-Wen model is selected and nonlinear dynamic OpenSees models are used to perform several time-history simulations in time and frequency domains. Through these numerical simulations, the effects of several parameters such as the fundamental period of the structure, dynamic properties of the TMD and isolation systems and properties of the input ground motion on the behaviour of TMD-structure-base isolation systems are examined. The results of this study provide a better insight into the performance of linear shear-story structures with nonlinear base isolators and show that there are many scenarios in which TMDs can still improve the performance of these systems.

Key Words
structural control; tuned mass damper; base isolation; nonlinear dynamic analysis; earthquake engineering

Address
Reza Mirza Hessabi, Oya Mercan: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4, Canada

Baki Ozturk: Civil Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

Abstract
Evaluation on the sidesway seismic collapse capacity of the widely used low- and medium-height structures is meaningful. These structures with such type of collapse are recognized that behave as inelastic deteriorating single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems. To incorporate the deteriorating effects, the hysteretic loop of the nonlinear SDOF structural model is represented by a tri-linear force-displacement relationship. The concept of collapse capacity spectra are adopted, where the incremental dynamic analysis is performed to check the collapse point and a normalized ground motion intensity measure corresponding to the collapse point is used to define the collapse capacity. With a large amount of earthquake ground motions, a systematic parameter study, i.e., the influences of various ground motion parameters (site condition, magnitude, distance to rupture, and near-fault effect) as well as various structural parameters (damping, ductility, degrading stiffness, pinching behavior, accumulated damage, unloading stiffness, and P-delta effect) on the structural collapse capacity has been performed. The analytical formulas for the collapse capacity spectra considering above influences have been presented so as to quickly predict the structural collapse capacities.

Key Words
seismic collapse; collapse capacity; ground motion parameters; deteriorating hysteretic behaviors; analytical predictions

Address
Zhan Shu: Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China

Shuang Li, Mengmeng Gao and Zhenwei Yuan: Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behavior and Control of the Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China

Shuang Li, Mengmeng Gao and Zhenwei Yuan: Key Lab of Smart Prevention and Mitigation of Civil Engineering Disasters of the Ministry and Information Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China

Abstract
A new method is suggested for the retrofitting of torsionally sensitive buildings. The main objective is to eliminate the torsional component from the first two natural modes of the structure by properly modifying its stiffness distribution via selective strengthening of its vertical elements. Due to the multi-parameter nature of this problem, state-of-art optimization schemes together with an ad-hoc software implementation were used for quantifying the required stiffness increase, determine the required retrofitting scheme and finally design and analyze the required composite sections for structural rehabilitation. The performance of the suggested method and its positive impact on the earthquake response of such structures is demonstrated through benchmark examples and applications on actual torsionally sensitive buildings.

Key Words
structural optimization; evolutionary algorithms; retrofitting method; torsional sensitivity; R/C jackets

Address
Lab of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 482, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract
The reverse fault is a dangerous geological hazard faced by buried steel pipelines. Permanent ground deformation along the fault trace will induce large compressive strain leading to buckling failure of the pipe. A hybrid pipe-shell element based numerical model programed by INP code supported by ABAQUS solver was proposed in this study to explore the strain performance of buried X80 steel pipeline under reverse fault displacement. Accuracy of the numerical model was validated by previous full scale experimental results. Based on this model, parametric analysis was conducted to study the effects of four main kinds of parameters, e.g., pipe parameters, fault parameters, load parameter and soil property parameters, on the strain demand. Based on 2340 peak strain results of various combinations of design parameters, a semi-empirical model for strain demand prediction of X80 pipeline at reverse fault crossings was proposed. In general, reverse faults encountered by pipelines are involved in 3D oblique reverse faults, which can be considered as a combination of reverse fault and strike-slip fault. So a compressive strain demand estimation procedure for X80 pipeline crossing oblique-reverse faults was proposed by combining the presented semi-empirical model and the previous one for compression strike-slip fault (Liu 2016). Accuracy and efficiency of this proposed method was validated by fifteen design cases faced by the Second West to East Gas pipeline. The proposed method can be directly applied to the strain based design of X80 steel pipeline crossing oblique-reverse faults, with much higher efficiency than common numerical models.

Key Words
oblique-reverse fault; strain demand; hybrid finite element model; parametric analysis; regression equation

Address
Xiaoben Liu, Hong Zhang, Yanfei Chen, Mengying Xia and Kai Wu: College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing, China

Xiaoting Gu: College of Petroleum Engineering, Yangtze University, Wuhan Hubei, China

Abstract
Masonry infill walls are unavoidable parts of any building to create a separation between internal space and external environment. In general, there are some prevalent openings in the infill wall due to functional needs, architectural considerations or aesthetic concerns. In current design practice, the strength and stiffness contribution of infill walls is not considered. However, the presence of infill walls may decisively influence the seismic response of structures subjected to earthquake loads and cause a different behavior from that predicted for a bare frame. Furthermore, partial openings in the masonry infill wall are significant parameter affecting the seismic behavior of infilled frames thereby decreasing the lateral stiffness and strength. The possible effects of openings in the infill wall on seismic behavior of RC frames is analytically studied by means of pushover analysis of several bare, partially and fully infilled frames having different bay and story numbers. The stiffness loss due to partial opening is introduced by the stiffness reduction factors which are developed from finite element analysis of frames considering frame-infill interaction. Pushover curves of frames are plotted and the maximum base shear forces, the yield displacement, the yield base shear force coefficient, the displacement demand, interstory drift ratios and the distribution of story shear forces are determined. The comparison of parameters both in terms of seismic demand and capacity indicates that partial openings decisively influences the nonlinear behavior of RC frames and cause a different behavior from that predicted for a bare frame or fully infilled frame.

Key Words
partially infilled RC frames; stiffness reduction factor; nonlinear behavior; pushover analysis; capacity; seismic demand

Address
Onur Ozturkoglu, Yusuf Yesilce: Deparment of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey

Taner Ucar: Department of Architecture, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey

Abstract
The design of reinforced concrete structures strongly depends on the value of the compression concrete strength used for the structural components. Given the uncertainties involved on the materials quality provided by concrete manufacturers, in the construction stage, these components may be either over or under-reinforced respect to the nominal condition. If the structure is under reinforced, and the deficit on safety level is not as large to require the structure demolition, someone should assume the consequences, and pay for the under standard condition by means of a penalty. If the structure is over reinforced, and other failure modes are not induced, the builder may receive a bonus, as a consequence of the higher, although unrequested, building resistance. The change on the building safety level is even more critical when the structure is under a seismic environment. In this research, a reliability-based criteria, including the consideration of expected losses, is proposed for bonification/penalization, when there are moderated differences between the supplied and specified reinforced concrete strength for the buildings. The formulation is applied to two hypothetical, with regular structural type, 3 and 10 levels reinforced concrete buildings, located on the soft soil zone of Mexico City. They were designed under the current Mexican code regulations, and their responses for typical spectral pseudoaccelerations, combined with their respective occurrence probabilities, are used to calculate the building failure probability. The results are aimed at providing objective basis to start a negotiation towards a satisfactory agreement between the involved parts. The main contribution resides on the explicit consideration of potential losses, including the building and contents losses and the business interruption due to the reconstruction period.

Key Words
nominal and actual concrete strength; expected failure costs; R/C buildings; seismic loading; compensation factors

Address
Engineering, Autonomous University of Mexico State, Campus UAEM, Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico

Abstract
The seismic events in Northern Italy, May 2012, have revealed the seismic vulnerability of typical Italian precast industrial buildings. The aim of this paper is to present a seismic fragility model for Italian RC precast buildings, to be used in earthquake loss estimation and seismic risk assessment by comparing two building typologies and three different codes: D.M. 3-03-1975, D.M. 16-01-1996 and current Italian building code that has been released in 2008. Based on geometric characteristics and design procedure applied, ten different building classes were identified. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each building class in order to generate the building stock used for the development of fragility curves trough analytical method. The probabilistic distributions of geometry were mainly obtained from data collected from 650 field surveys, while the material properties were deduced from the code in place at the time of construction or from expert opinion. The structures were modelled in 2D frameworks; since the past seismic events have identified the beam-column connection as the weakest element of precast buildings, two different modelling solutions were adopted to develop fragility curves: a simple model with post processing required to detect connection collapse and an innovative modelling solution able to reproduce the real behaviour of the connection during the analysis. Fragility curves were derived using both nonlinear static and dynamic analysis.

Key Words
seismic fragility; RC precast structures; beam-column connection collapse; nonlinear modelling

Address
Dumitru Beilic, Roberto Nascimbene, Daniele Cicola and Daniela Rodrigues: EUCENTRE, Pavia, Italy

Chiara Casotto: ROSE Programme, UME School, IUSS Pavia, Italy

Abstract
Prior to modern seismic provisions, several bridges were not designed for seismic actions in moderate seismic areas. Precast multi-girder and slab bridges are typical highway overpass structures; they have a significant contribution to national bridge stocks. Since the seismic behavior is questionable, a preliminary parametric study is conducted to determine critical configurations and components. The results indicate that the behavior of the abutments, backfill soil, superstructure and foundation is normally satisfactory; however, the superstructure-abutment joints are critical for both single- and multi-span bridges, while the piers are also critical for longer multi-span configurations. The parametric results provide a solid basis both for detailed seismic assessment and development of design concepts of newly built structures in moderate seismic zones.

Key Words
seismic analysis; parametric analysis; multi modal response spectrum analysis; seismic performance; bridge engineering; moderate seismicity

Address
Department of Structural Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Műegyetem rkp. 3., 1111, Hungary


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