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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 5, November 2016
 

Abstract
A simplified approach of assessing torsionally balanced (TB) and torsionally unbalanced (TU) low-medium rise buildings of up to 30 m in height is presented in this paper for regions of low-to-moderate seismicity. The Generalised Force Method of Analysis for TB buildings which is illustrated in the early part of the paper involves calculation of the deflection profile of the building in a 2D analysis in order that a capacity diagram can be constructed to intercept with the acceleration-displacement response spectrum diagram representing seismic actions. This approach of calculation on the planar model of a building which involves applying lateral forces to the building (waiving away the need of a dynamic analysis and yet obtaining similar results) has been adapted for determining the deflection behaviour of a TU building in the later part of the paper. Another key original contribution to knowledge is taking into account the strong dependence of the torsional response behaviour of the building on the periodic properties of the applied excitations in relation to the natural periods of vibration of the building. Many of the trends presented are not reflected in provisions of major codes of practices for the seismic design of buildings. The deflection behaviour of the building in response to displacement controlled (DC) excitations is in stark contrast to behaviour in acceleration controlled (AC), or velocity controlled (VC), conditions, and is much easier to generalise. Although DC conditions are rare with buildings not exceeding 30 m in height displacement estimates based on such conditions can be taken as upper bound estimates in order that a conservative prediction of the displacement profile at the edge of a TU building can be obtained conveniently by the use of a constant amplification factor to scale results from planar analysis.

Key Words
torsion; torsionally unbalanced; asymmetric building; low-medium rise building; low seismicity

Address
Nelson T.K. Lam, Elisa Lumantarna: Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

John L. Wilson: Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Nelson T.K. Lam, John L. Wilson, Elisa Lumantarna: Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Australia

Abstract
Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are essential tools in seismic hazard analysis. With the introduction of probabilistic approaches for the estimation of seismic response of structures, also known as, performance based earthquake engineering framework; new tasks are defined for response spectrum such as the reference criterion for effective structure-specific selection of ground motions for nonlinear time history analysis. One of the recent efforts to introduce a high quality databank of ground motions besides the corresponding selection scheme based on the broadband spectral consistency is the development of SIMBAD (Selected Input Motions for displacement-Based Assessment and Design), which is designed to improve the reliability of spectral values at all natural periods by removing noise with modern proposed approaches. In this paper, a new global GMPE is proposed by using selected ground motions from SIMBAD to improve the reliability of computed spectral shape indicators. To determine regression coefficients, 204 pairs of horizontal components from 35 earthquakes with magnitude ranging from Mw 5 to Mw 7.1 and epicentral distances lower than 40 km selected from SIMBAD are used. The proposed equation is compared with similar models both qualitatively and quantitatively. After the verification of model by several goodness-of-fit measures, the epsilon values as the spectral shape indicator are computed and the validity of available prediction equations for correlation of the pairs of epsilon values is examined. General consistency between predictions by new model and others, especially, in short periods is confirmed, while, at longer periods, there are meaningful differences between normalized residuals and correlation coefficients between pairs of them estimated by new model and those are computed by other empirical equations. A simple collapse assessment example indicate possible improvement in the correlation between collapse capacity and spectral shape indicators (ε) up to 20% by selection of a more applicable GMPE for calculation of ε.

Key Words
ground motion prediction; elastic spectral ordinates; correlation; epsilon

Address
International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), 21 Arghavan st., North Dibajie, Farmanieh, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Reinforced concrete buildings constitute the majority of the building stock of Turkey and much of them, do not comply the earthquake codes. Recently there is a great tendency for strengthening to heal their earthquake performance. The performance evaluations are usually executed by the numerical investigations performed in computer packages. However, the numerical models are often far from representing the real behaviour of the existing buildings. In this condition, experimental modal analysis fills a gap to correct the numerical models to be used in further analysis. On the other hand, there have been a few dynamic tests performed on the existing reinforced concrete buildings. Especially forced vibration survey is not preferred due to the inherent difficulties, high cost and probable risk of damage. This study applies both ambient and forced vibration surveys to investigate the dynamic properties of a six-story residential building in Istanbul. Mode shapes, modal frequencies and damping ration were determined. Later on numerical analysis with finite element method was performed. Based on the first three modes of the building, a model updating strategy was employed. The study enabled to compare the results of ambient and forced vibration surveys and check the accuracy of the numerical models used for the performance evaluation of the reinforced concrete buildings.

Key Words
ambient vibration; forced vibration; model tuning; reinforced concrete; experimental research

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Unalan Yerleskesi, C blok, No: 102, 34730, Üsküdar, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
The plastic hinge lengths of beams and columns are a critical demand parameter in the nonlinear analysis of structures using the finite element method. The numerical model of a plastic hinge plays an important role in evaluating the response and damage of a structure to earthquakes or other loads causing the formation of plastic hinges. Previous research demonstrates that the plastic hinge length of reinforced concrete (RC) columns is closely related to section size, reinforcement ratio, reinforcement strength, concrete strength, axial compression ratio, and so on. However, because of the limitations of testing facilities, there is a lack of experimental data on columns with large section sizes and high axial compression ratios. In this work, we conducted a series of quasi-static tests for columns with large section sizes (up to 700 mm) and high axial compression ratios (up to 0.6) to explore the propagation of plastic hinge length during the whole loading process. The experimental results show that besides these parameters mentioned in previous work, the plastic hinge of RC columns is also affected by loading amplitude and size effect. Therefore, an approach toward considering the effect of these two parameters is discussed in this work.

Key Words
reinforced concrete column; axial compression ratio; plastic hinge length; loading amplitude; size effect

Address
Zhenyun Tang, Hua Ma, Jun Guo, Yongping Xie and Zhenbao Li: The Key Laboratory of Urban Security and Disaster Engineering, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology. Beijing, 100124, China

Yongping Xie: College of Exploration Technology and Engineering ,Shijiazhuang University of Economics, Shijiazhuang,050031, China

Abstract
Bridge bearings are important connection elements between bridge superstructures and substructures, whose health states directly affect the performance of the bridges. This paper systematacially presents a new method to identify the bridge bearing damage based on the neural network theory. Firstly, based on the analysis of different damage types, a description of the bearing damage is introduced, and a uniform description for all the damage types is given. Then, the feasibility and sensitivity of identifying the bearing damage with bridge vibration modes are investigated. After that, a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) is built, whose input and output are the beam modal information and the damage information, respectively. Finally, trained by plenty of data samples formed by the numerical method, the network is employed to identify the bearing damage. Results show that the bridge bearing damage can be clearly reflected by the modal information of the bridge beam, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Key Words
bridge bearing; damage identification; vibration mode; Radial Basis Function Neural Network; finite element model

Address
Zhaowei Chen: State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China

Hui Fang: Electric Power Research Institute, State Grid Chongqing Electric Power Co. Chongqing, China

Xinmeng Ke: Locomotive Vehicle Department, Zhengzhou Railway Vocational and Technical College, Zhengzhou, China

Yiming Zeng: Locomotive and Car Research Institute, China Academy of Railway Sciences, Beijing, China

Abstract
The Groningen gas field shows exponential growth in earthquake event counts around a magnitude M1 with a doubling time of 6-9 years since 2001. This behavior is identified with dimensionless curvature in land subsidence, which has been evolving at a constant rate over the last few decades essentially uncorrelated to gas production. We demonstrate our mechanism by a tabletop crack formation experiment. The observed skewed distribution of event magnitudes is matched by that of maxima of event clusters with a normal distribution. It predicts about one event <M5 per day in 2025, pointing to increasing stress to human living conditions.

Key Words
induced earthquakes; crack formation; statistical forecasting

Address
Maurice H.P.M. van Putten: Physics and Astronomy, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea

Anton F.P. van Putten: AnMar Research Laboratories B.V., Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Michael J.A.M. van Putten: Clinical Neurophysiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente and University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

Abstract
Determination of earthquake-safety of existing buildings requires a rather long and challenging process both in terms of time and expertise. In order to prevent such a tedious process, rather rapid methods for evaluating buildings were developed. The purpose of these rapid methods is to determine the buildings that have priority in terms of risk and accordingly to minimize the number of buildings to be inspected. In these rapid evaluation methods detailed information and inspection are not required. Among these methods the Canadian Seismic scanning method and the first stage evaluation method included in the principles concerning the determination of risk-bearing buildings promulgated by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization in Turkey are used in the present study. Within the scope of this study, six reinforced concrete buildings damaged in Van earthquakes in Turkey are selected. The performance scores of these buildings are calculated separately with the mentioned two methods, and then compared. The purpose of the study is to provide information on these two methods and to set forth the relation they have between them in order to manifest the international validity.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; first stage; seismic screening rapid assessment

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bitlis Eren University, TR-13100, Bitlis, Turkey

Abstract
An efficient, economical and practical strengthening method for hollow brick infill walls was proposed and investigated in the present study, experimentally and numerically. This method aims at increasing the overall lateral strength and stiffness of the structure by increasing the contribution of the infill walls and providing the non-bearing components of the structure with the capability of absorbing earthquake-induced energy to minimize structural damage during seismic excitations. A total of eleven fullscale infill walls strengthened with expanded mild steel plates were tested under diagonal monotonic loading to simulate the loading condition of the non-bearing walls during an earthquake. The contact surface between the plates and the wall was increased with the help of plaster. Thickness of the plates bonded to both faces of the wall and the spacing of the bolts were adopted as test parameters. The experiments indicated that the plates were able to carry a major portion of the tensile stresses induced by the diagonal loads and provided the walls walls with a considerable confining effect. The composite action attained by the plates and the wall until yielding of the bolts increased the load capacities, rigidities, ductilities and energyabsorption capacities of the walls, considerably.

Key Words
expanded steel plate; brick infill wall; structural strengthening; diagonal compression; seismic behavior; reinforced concrete frame

Address
Alper Cumhur, Adil Altundal: Civil Engineering Department, Sakarya Üniversity, 54187 Sakarya, Turkey

Sabahattin Aykac and Bengi Aykac: Civil Engineering Department, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara, Turkey

Abstract
Several two-dimensional analytical beam column joint models with varying complexities have been proposed in quantifying joint flexibility during seismic vulnerability assessment of non-ductile reinforced concrete (RC) frames. Notable models are the single component rotational spring element and the super element joint model that can effectively capture the governing inelastic mechanisms under severe ground motions. Even though both models have been extensively calibrated and verified using quasi-static test of joint sub-assemblages, a comparative study of the inelastic seismic responses under nonlinear time history analysis (NTHA) of RC frames has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study employs three hypothetical case study RC frames subjected to increasing ground motion intensities to study their inherent variations. Results indicate that the super element joint model overestimates the transient drift ratio at the first story and becomes highly un-conservative by under-predicting the drift ratios at the roof level when compared to the single-component model and the conventional rigid joint assumption. In addition, between these story levels, a decline in the drift ratios is observed as the story level increased. However, from this limited study, there is no consistent evidence to suggest that care should be taken in selecting either a single or multi component joint model for seismic risk assessment of buildings when a global demand measure such as maximum inter-storey drift is employed in the seismic assessment framework.

Key Words
beam-column joint; reinforced concrete; super-element joint model; scissors joint model; seismic analysis

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


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