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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 4, October 2016
 

Abstract
The rate of occurrence of intraplate earthquake events has been surveyed around the globe to ascertain the average level of intraplate seismic activities on land. Elastic response spectra corresponding to various levels of averaged (uniform) seismicity for a return period of 2475 years have then been derived along with modifying factors that can be used to infer ground motion and spectral response parameters for other return period values. Estimates derived from the assumption of uniform seismicity are intended to identify the minimum level of design seismic hazard in intraplate regions. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment presented in the paper involved the use of ground motion models that have been developed for regions of different tectonic and crustal classifications. The proposed minimum earthquake loading model is illustrated by the case study of Peninsular Malaysia which has been identified with a minimum effective peak ground acceleration (EPGA) of 0.1 g for a return period of 2475 years, or 0.07 g for a notional return period of 475 years.

Key Words
intraplate earthquake; response spectrum; return period; uniform seismicity; Malaysia

Address
Nelson T.K. Lam, Elisa Lumantarna: Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Hing-Ho Tsang, John L. Wilson: Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Nelson T.K. Lam, Hing-Ho Tsang, Elisa Lumantarna and John L. Wilson: Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia

Abstract
The failure mechanism and maximum collapse load of masonry structures may change significantly under static and dynamic excitations depending on their internal arrangement and material properties. Hence, it is important to understand correctly the nonlinear behavior of masonry structures in order to adequately assess their safety and propose efficient strengthening measures, especially for historical constructions. The discrete element method (DEM) can play an important role in these studies. This paper discusses possible collapse mechanisms and provides a set of parametric analyses by considering the influence of material properties and cross section morphologies on the out of plane strength of masonry walls. Detailed modeling of masonry structures may affect their mechanical strength and displacement capacity. In particular, the structural behavior of stacked and rubble masonry walls, portal frames, simple combinations of masonry piers and arches, and a real structure is discussed using DEM. It is further demonstrated that this structural analysis tool allows obtaining excellent results in the description of the nonlinear behavior of masonry structures.

Key Words
discrete element method (DEM); masonry structures

Address
Bora Pulatsu, Paulo B. Lourenco: Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering, University of Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal

Eduardo M. Bretas: Department of Infrastructure, Materials and Structures, Northern Research Institute, Narvik, Norway

Abstract
One of the main applications of seismic risk assessment is that an specific design could be selected for a bridge from different alternatives by considering damage losses alongside primary construction costs. Therefore, in this paper, the focus is on selecting the shape of pylon, which is a changeable component in the design of a cable-stayed bridge, as a double criterion decision-making problem. Different shapes of pylons include H, A, Y, and diamond shape, and the two criterion are construction costs and probable earthquake losses. In this research, decision-making is performed by using developed seismic risk assessment process as a powerful method. Considering the existing uncertainties in seismic risk assessment process, the combined incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and uniform design (UD) based fragility assessment method is proposed, in which the UD method is utilized to provide the logical capacity models of the structure, and the IDA method is employed to give the probabilistic seismic demand model of structure. Using the aforementioned models and by defining damage states, the fragility curves of the bridge system are obtained for the different pylon shapes usage. Finally, by combining the fragility curves with damage losses and implementing the proposed cost-loss-benefit (CLB) method, the seismic risk assessment process is developed with financial-comparative approach. Thus, the optimal shape of the pylon can be determined using double criterion decision-making. The final results of decision-making study indicate that the optimal pylon shapes for the studied span of cable-stayed bridge are, respectively, H shape, diamond shape, Y shape, and A shape.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridge; pylon shape; seismic risk assessment; double criterion decision-making; financial - comparative approach; Cost-Loss-Benefit (CLB) method

Address
Vahid Akhoondzade-Noghabi and Khosrow Bargi: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Results of an experimental program are presented in this paper for the influence of vertical load on the in-plane behavior of masonry infilled steel frames. Five half-scaled single-story, single-bay steel frame specimens were tested under cyclic lateral loading. The specimens included four infilled frames and one bare frame. Two similar specimens as well as the bare frame had moment-resisting steel frames, while the remaining two specimens had pinned steel frames. For each frame type, one specimen was tested under simultaneous vertical and lateral loading, whereas the other was subjected only to lateral loading. The experimental results show that the vertical load changes the cracking patterns and failure modes of the infill panels. It improves dissipated hysteresis energy and equivalent viscous damping. Global responses of specimens, including stiffness and maximum strength, do no change by vertical loading considerably. Regarding the ductility, the presence of vertical load is ignorable in the specimen with moment-resisting frame. However, it increases the ductility of the infilled pinned frame specimen, leading to an enhancement in the m-factor by at least 2.5 times. In summary, it is concluded that the influence of the vertical load on the lateral response of infilled frames can be conservatively ignored.

Key Words
masonry Infill; vertical load; steel frame; connection rigidity; m-factor

Address
International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), No. 26, Arghavan St., North Dibajee, Farmanieh, P.O. Box 19395/3913, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This paper deals with 111 buildings built between 1962 and 1987, from various parts of the city of Osijek, for which, through the collection of documentation, a database is created. The aim of this paper is to provide the first steps in assessing seismic risk in Osijek applying method based on vulnerability index. This index uses collected information of parameters of the building: the structural system, the construction year, plan, the height, i.e., the number of stories, the type of foundation, the structural and non-structural elements, the type and the quality of main construction material, the position in the block and built-up area. According to this method defining five damage states, the action is expressed in terms of the macroseismic intensity and the seismic quality of the buildings by means of a vulnerability index. The value of the vulnerability index can be changed depending on the structural systems, quality of construction, etc., by introducing behavior and regional modifiers based on expert judgments. Since there is no available data of damaged buildings under earthquake loading in our country, we will propose behavior modifiers based on values suggested by earlier works and on judgment based on available project documentation of the considered buildings. Depending on the proposed modifiers, the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings in the city of Osijek will be assessed. The resulting vulnerability of the considered residential buildings provides necessary insight for emergency planning and for identification of critical objects vulnerable to seismic loading.

Key Words
seismic vulnerability assessment; building typology; macroseismic method

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering Osijek, University of J.J. Strossmayer in Osijek, Osijek, Croatia

Abstract
A seismic damaged bridge may be hit again by a strong aftershock or another earthquake in a short interval before the repair work has been done. However, discussions about the impact of the unrepaired damages on the residual earthquake resistance of a steel bridge are very scarce at present. In this paper, nonlinear time-history analysis of a steel arch bridge was performed using multi-scale hybrid model. Two strong historical records of main shock-aftershock sequences were taken as the input ground motions during the dynamic analysis. The strain response, local deformation and the accumulation of plasticity of the bridge with and without unrepaired seismic damage were compared. Moreover, the effect of earthquake sequence on crack initiation caused by low-cycle fatigue of the steel bridge was investigated. The results show that seismic damage has little impact on the overall structural displacement response during the aftershock. The residual local deformation, strain response and the cumulative equivalent plastic strain are affected to some extent by the unrepaired damage. Low-cycle fatigue of the steel arch bridge is not induced by the earthquake sequences. Damage indexes of low-cycle fatigue predicted based on different theories are not exactly the same.

Key Words
steel arch bridge; earthquake sequence; multi-scale hybrid model; seismic damage; residual seismic capacity; low-cycle fatigue

Address
Zhanzhan Tang, Xu Xie and Tong Wang: Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, 310058, China

Zhanzhan Tang: College of Civil Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu, 225127, China

Abstract
This paper focuses on the study of seismic behavior of steel reinforced concrete special-shaped column-beam joints. Six specimens, which are designed according to the principle of strong-member and weak-joint core, are tested under low cyclic reversed load. Key parameters include the steel form in column section and the ratio of column limb height to thickness. The failure mode, load-displacement curves, ductility, stiffness degradations, energy dissipation capacity and shear deformation of joint core of the test subassemblies are analyzed. The results indicate that SRC special-shaped column-beam joints have good seismic behavior. All specimens failed due to the shear failure of the joint core, and the failure degree between the two sides of joint core is similar for the exterior joint but different for the corner joint. Compared to the joints with channel steel truss, the joints with solid web steel skeleton illustrate better ductility and energy dissipation capacity, but the loading capacity and stiffness are roughly close. With the increasing of the ratio of column limb height to thickness, the joints illustrate higher loading capacity and stiffness, better energy dissipation capacity, but worse ductility.

Key Words
steel reinforced concrete (SRC); special-shaped column; seismic behavior; experimental study; joint core

Address
College of Civil Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian, China

Abstract
Steel box girders have two webs and two flanges on top that are usually connected with shear connectors to the concrete deck and are also known as tub girders. The end diaphragms of such bridges comprise of a stiffened steel plate welded to the inside of the girder at each end. The diaphragms play a major role in transferring vertical and lateral loads to the bearings and substructure. A review of literature shows that the cyclic behavior of diaphragms under earthquake loading has not been studied previously. This paper uses a nonlinear finite element model to study the behavior of the end diaphragms under gravity and seismic loads. Different bearing device and stiffener configurations have been considered. Affected areas of the diaphragm are distinguished.

Key Words
steel bridge; tub girder; end diaphragm; seismic; cyclic behav

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Base isolation is a well-established passive strategy for seismic response control of buildings. In this paper, an efficient framework is proposed for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of isolated buildings subjected to uncertain earthquakes. The framework uses reduced function evaluations method, as an efficient tool for structural reliability analysis, and an efficient optimization algorithm for optimal structural design. The probability of failure is calculated considering excessive base displacement, superstructure inter-storey drifts, member stress ratios and absolute accelerations of floors of the isolated building as failure events. The behavior of rubber bearing isolators is modeled using nonlinear hysteretic model and the variability of future earthquakes is modeled by applying a probabilistic approach. The effects of pulse component of stochastic near-fault ground motions, fixity-factor of semi-rigid beam-to-column connections, values of isolator parameters, earthquake magnitude and epicentral distance on the performance and safety of semi-rigidly connected base-isolated steel framed buildings are studied. Suitable RBDO examples are solved to illustrate the results of investigations.

Key Words
reduced function evaluations; near-field earthquakes; optimization; base-isolation; rubber bearings; semi-rigid connections

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract
Reinforced concrete corbels are generally used to transfer loads within a structural system, such as buildings, bridges, and facilities in general. They commonly present low aspect ratio, requiring an accurate model for shear strength prediction in order to promote flexural behavior. The model described here, originally developed for walls, was adapted for corbels. The model is based on a reinforced concrete panel, described by constitutive laws for concrete and steel and applied in a fixed direction. Equilibrium in the orthogonal direction to the shearing force allows for the estimation of the shear stress versus strain response. The original model yielded conservative results with important scatter, thus various modifications were implemented in order to improve strength predictions: 1) recalibration of the strut (crack) direction, capturing the absence of transverse reinforcement and axial load in most corbels, 2) inclusion of main (boundary) reinforcement in the equilibrium equation, capturing its participation in the mechanism, and 3) decrease in aspect ratio by considering the width of the loading plate in the formulation. To analyze the behavior of the theoretical model, a database of 109 specimens available in the literature was collected. The model yielded an average model-to-test shear strength ratio of 0.98 and a coefficient of variation of 0.16, showing also that most test variables are well captured with the model, and providing better results than the original model. The model strength prediction is compared with other models in the literature, resulting in one of the most accurate estimates.

Key Words
corbels; panel model; strength; reinforced concrete; shear

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile


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