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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 3, September 2016
 

Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to determine the dynamic characteristics and the structural stability of the two approach viaducts of the Bosphorus Suspension Bridge under the expected stresses that would be caused during earthquake conditions. The Ortakoy and the Beylerbeyi approach viaducts constitute the side spans of the bridge at two locations. The bridge´s main span over the Bosphorus is suspended, whereas they are supported at the base at either end. For the numerical investigation of the viaducts, 3-D computational structural finite element-FE models were developed. Their natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes were obtained, analyzed, presented and compared. The performances of the viaducts, under earthquake conditions, were studied considering the P-Delta effects implementing the push-over (POA) and the non-linear time-history analyses (NTHA). For the NTHA, three earthquake ground motions were generated depending on the location of the bridge. Seismic performances of the viaducts were determined in accordance with the requirements of the Turkish Seismic Code for the Earthquake Design of Railways Bridges (TSC-R/2008) and those of Caltrans (CALTRANS-2001) given for Seismic Design of Steel Bridges, separately. Furthermore, the investigation was extended for evaluating the possible need for retrofitting in the future. After the analysis of the resultant data, a retrofit recommendation for the viaducts was presented.

Key Words
suspension bridge; approach viaducts; seismic performance; non-linear time-history; pushover; seismic retrofit

Address
Selcuk Bas: Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin, Turkey

Selcuk Bas: Graduate School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Istanbul Technical University,
34496 Istanbul, Turkey

Nurdan Memisoglu Apaydin: Director, Department of Structures, General Directorate of Turkish State Highways, 06100 Ankara, Turkey

Zekai Celep: Department of Structural and Earthquake Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vertical ground motion (VGM) on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) regular frame with construction joints, and determine more proper modeling method for cast-in-situ RC frame. The four-story RC frames in the regions of 7, 8 and 9 earthquake intensity were analyzed with nonlinear dynamic time-history method. Two different methods of ground motion input, horizontal ground motion (HGM) input only, VGM and HGM input simultaneously were performed. Seismic responses in terms of the maximum vertex displacement, the maximum inter-story drift distribution and the plastic hinge distribution were analyzed. The results show that VGM might increase or decrease the horizontal maximum vertex displacement depending on the value of axial load ratio of column. And it will increase the maximum inter-story drift and change its distribution. Finally, proper modeling method is proposed according to the distribution of plastic hinges, which is in well agreement with the actual earthquake damage.

Key Words
seismic behavior; vertical ground motion (VGM); RC frame; construction joint; nonlinear time-history analysis; numerical model

Address
Jing Yu and Xiaojun Liu: College of Civil Engineering, Xi

Abstract
When conducting seismic assessment of an asymmetric building, it is essential to carry out three dimensional analysis considering all the possible directions of seismic input. For this purpose, the author proposed a simplified procedure is to predict the largest peak seismic response of an asymmetric building subjected to horizontal bidirectional ground motion acting in an arbitrary angle of incidence in previous study. This simplified procedure has been applied to torsionally stiff (TS) asymmetric buildings with regular elevation. However, the suitability of this procedure to estimate the peak response of an asymmetric building with vertical irregularity, such as an asymmetric building with setback, has not been assessed. In this article, the pushover-based simplified procedure is applied to estimate the peak response of asymmetric buildings with bidirectional setback. Nonlinear dynamic (time-history) analysis of two six-storey asymmetric buildings with bidirectional setback and designed according to strong-column weak beam concept is carried out considering various directions of seismic input, and the results compared with those estimated by the proposed method. The largest peak displacement estimated by the simplified method agrees well with the envelope of the dynamic analysis response. The suitability assessment of the simplified procedure to analysed building models is made as well based on pushover analysis results.

Key Words
asymmetric building; setback; pushover analysis; bidirectional excitation; torsional index; angle of incidence of seismic input

Address
Department of Architecture, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan

Abstract
Quantitative estimation of seismic response of various structural systems at the collapse limit state is one of the most significant objectives in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE). Assessing the effects of uncertainties, due to variability in ground motion characteristics and random nature of earthquakes, on nonlinear structural response is a pivotal issue regarding collapse safety prediction. Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) and fragility curves are utilized to estimate demand parameters and seismic performance levels of structures. Since producing these curves based on a large number of nonlinear dynamic analyses would be time-consuming, selection of appropriate earthquake ground motion records resulting in reliable responses with sufficient accuracy seems to be quite essential. The aim of this research study is to propose a methodology to assess the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete frames at collapse limit state via accurate estimation of seismic fragility curves for different Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs) by using a limited number of ground motion records. Research results demonstrate that accurate estimating of structural collapse capacity is feasible through applying the proposed method offering an appropriate suite of limited ground motion records.

Key Words
ground motion selection; scaling method; incremental dynamic analysis; reinforced concrete frames; fragility curves; collapse limit state

Address
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalaale-al Ahmad Ave., Tehran, Iran

Abstract
The research described in this paper investigates the seismic behaviour of lightly reinforced concrete (RC) bearing sandwich panels, heavily conditioned by shear deformation. A numerical model has been prepared, within an open source finite element (FE) platform, to simulate the experimental response of this emerging structural system, whose squat-type geometry affects performance and failure mode. Calibration of this equivalent mechanical model, consisting of a group of regularly spaced vertical elements in combination with a layer of nonlinear springs, which represent the cyclic behaviour of concrete and steel, has been conducted by means of a series of pseudo-static cyclic tests performed on single full-scale prototypes with or without openings. Both cantilevered and fixed-end shear walls have been analyzed. After validation, this numerical procedure, including cyclic-related mechanisms, such as buckling and subsequent slippage of reinforcing re-bars, as well as concrete crushing at the base of the wall, has been used to assess the capacity of two- and three-dimensional low- to mid-rise box-type buildings and, hence, to estimate their strength reduction factors, on the basis of conventional pushover analyses.

Key Words
lightweight concrete wall; shear wall; sandwich panel; finite element model; multi-spring model; seismic response; strength reduction factor

Address
E. Brunesi, R. Nascimbene: EUCENTRE, European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (PV), Italy

A. Pavese: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia Via Ferrata 3, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Abstract
This study aims to evaluate seismic performance of existing low and mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings by comparing their displacement capacities and displacement demands under selected ground motions experienced in Turkey as well as demand spectrum provided in 2007 Turkish Earthquake Code for design earthquake with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for soil class Z3. It should be noted that typical residential buildings are designed according to demand spectrum of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Three RC building sets as 2-, 4- and 7-story, are selected to represent reference low-and mid-rise buildings located in the high seismicity region of Turkey. The selected buildings are typical beam-column RC frame buildings with no shear walls. The outcomes of detailed field and archive investigation including approximately 500 real residential RC buildings established building models to reflect existing building stock. Total of 72 3-D building models are constructed from the reference buildings to include the effects of some properties such as structural irregularities, concrete strength, seismic codes, structural deficiencies, transverse reinforcement detailing, and number of story on seismic performance of low and mid-rise RC buildings. Capacity curves of building sets are obtained by nonlinear static analyses conducted in two principal directions, resulting in 144 models. The inelastic dynamic characteristics are represented by "equivalent" Single-Degree-of- Freedom (ESDOF) systems using obtained capacity curves of buildings. Nonlinear time history analysis is used to estimate displacement demands of representative building models idealized with (ESDOF) systems subjected to the selected ground motion records from past earthquakes in Turkey. The results show that the significant number of pre-modern code 4- and 7-story buildings exceeds LS performance level while the modern code 4- and 7-story buildings have better performances. The findings obviously indicate the existence of destructive earthquakes especially for 4- and 7-story buildings. Significant improvements in the performance of the buildings per modern code are also obvious in the study. Almost one third of pre-modern code buildings is exceeding LS level during records in the past earthquakes. This observation also supports the building damages experienced in the past earthquake events in Turkey.

Key Words
existing buildings; low and mid-rise buildings; nonlinear analysis; reinforced concrete; seismic code; seismic performance; structural irregularities

Address
Mehmet Inel: Department of Civil Engineering, Pamukkale University, 20070 Denizli, Turkey

Emrah Meral: Department of Civil Engineering, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, 80000 Osmaniye, Turkey

Abstract
This paper evaluates the scaling of ground motions recorded from nine intermediate-depth earthquakes produced in the Vrancea seismic zone in Romania. The considered ground motion database consists of 363 horizontal recordings obtained on soil classes B and C (according to Eurocode 8). An analysis of the inter- and intra-event spectral accelerations is performed in order to gain information regarding the magnitude and distance scaling of the Vrancea ground motions. The analyses reveal a significant influence of the earthquake magnitude and focal depth on the distance scaling and different magnitude and distance scaling for the two soil classes. A linear magnitude and distance scaling is inferred from the results for the range of magnitudes 5.2≤MW≤7.1. The results obtained are checked through stochastic simulations and the influence of the stress drop and kappa values on the ground motion levels is assessed. In addition, five ground motion models which were tested in other studies using recordings from Vrancea earthquakes are analyzed in order to evaluate their corresponding host stress drop and kappa. The results show generally a direct connection between the host kappa values and the host stress drop values. Moreover, all the ground motion models depict magnitude dependent host kappa and stress drop levels.

Key Words
spectral acceleration; kappa; stress drop; magnitude and distance scaling; ground motion models; soil class

Address
Florin Pavel and Radu Vacareanu: Seismic Risk Assessment Research Centre, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Bd. Lacul Tei no. 122-124, Sector 2, 020396, Bucharest, Romania

Abstract
This paper presents a probabilistic fragility analysis for two groups of bridges: simply supported and integral bridges. Comparisons are based on the seismic fragility of the bridges subjected to accelerograms of two seismic sources. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridges were created for each set of bridge samples, considering the nonlinear behaviour of critical bridge components. When the seismic hazard in the site is controlled by a few seismic sources, it is important to quantify separately the contribution of each fault to the structure vulnerability. In this study, seismic records come from earthquakes that originated in strike-slip and reverse faulting mechanisms. The influence of the earthquake mechanism on the seismic vulnerability of the bridges was analysed by considering the displacement ductility of the piers. An in-depth parametric study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridges´ seismic responses to variations of structural parameters. The analysis showed that uncertainties related to the presence of lap splices in columns and superstructure type in terms of integral or simply supported spans should be considered in the fragility analysis of the bridge system. Finally, the fragility curves determine the conditional probabilities that a specific structural demand will reach or exceed the structural capacity by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and acceleration spectrum intensity (ASI). The results also show that the simply supported bridges perform consistently better from a seismic perspective than integral bridges and focal mechanism of the earthquakes plays an important role in the seismic fragility analysis of highway bridges.

Key Words
fragility curves; seismic vulnerability; simply supported bridges; integral bridges; reverse and strike-slip seismic sources

Address
Araliya Mosleh: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Mehran S. Razzaghi: Department of Civil Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Jose Jara: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mexico

Humberto Varum: CONSTRUCT-LESE, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto,
4200-465 Porto, Portugal


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