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CONTENTS
Volume 10, Number 2, February 2016
 

Abstract
This paper deals with the seismic assessment of a real RC frame building located in Italy, designed according to the current Italian seismic code. The first part of the paper deals with the calibration of the structural model of the investigated building. The results of an in-situ dynamic identification test are employed in a sensitivity and parametric study in order to find the best fit model in terms of frequencies and modal shapes. In the second part, the safety of the structure is evaluated by means of nonlinear static analyses, taking into account the results of the previous dynamic study. In order to investigate the influence of the infills on the seismic response of the structure, the nonlinear static analyses are performed both neglecting and taking into account the infill panels. The infill panels differently change the behavior of the structure in terms of strength and stiffness at different seismic intensity levels. The assessment study also verifies the absence of brittle failures in structural elements, which could be caused by either the local interaction with infills or the failure of the strength hierarchy.

Key Words
RC frame; dynamic identification; material properties; seismic code; infills; capacity design

Address
University of Naples Federico II, Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy

Abstract
A parametric study on the nonlinear seismic response of isolated reinforced concrete structural frame is presented. Three prototype frames designed according to the 1954 Hellenic seismic code, with number of floor ranging from 1 to 3 were considered. These low rise frames are representative of many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Greece. The efficacy of the implementation of both lead rubber bearings (LRB) and friction pendulum isolators (FPI) base isolation systems were examined. The selection of the isolation devices was made according to the ratio Tis/Tfb, where Tis is the period of the base isolation system and Tbf is the period of the fixed-base building. The main purpose of this comprehensive study is to investigate the effect of the isolation system period on the seismic response of inadequately designed low rise buildings. Thus, the implementation of isolation systems which correspond to the ratio Tis/Tfb that values from 3 to 5 is studied. Nonlinear time history analyses were performed to investigate the response of the isolated structures using a set of three natural seismic ground motions. The evaluation of each retrofitting case was made in terms of storey drift and storey shear force while in view of serviceability it was made in terms of storey acceleration. Finally, the maximum developed displacements and the residual displacements of the isolation systems are presented.

Key Words
reinforced concrete frame assessment; base isolation; nonlinear analysis; pushover analysis

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Structural Mechanics and Earthquake Engineering Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi, Greece

Abstract
Beam-column joints are recognized as one of the most critical and vulnerable zones of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) moment resisting structure subjected to seismic loads. The performance of the deficient beam-column joints can be improved by retrofitting these joints by jacketing them with varied materials like concrete, steel, FRP and ferrocement. In the present study strength behavior of RCC exterior beam-column joints, initially loaded to a prefixed percentage of the ultimate load, and retrofitted using ferrocement jacketing using two different wrapping schemes has been studied and presented. In retrofitting scheme, RS-I, wire mesh is provided in L shape at top and at bottom of the beam-column joint, whereas, in scheme RS-II along with wire mesh in L shape at top and bottom wire mesh is also provided diagonally to the joint. The results of these retrofitted beam-column joints have been compared with those of the controlled joint specimens. The results show an improvement in the ultimate load carrying capacity and yield load of the retrofitted specimens. However, no improvement in the ductility and energy absorption has been observed.

Key Words
RCC beam-column joints; retrofitting; ferrocement; ductility; energy absorption; moment and rotation

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, India

Abstract
A parametric study was conducted to investigate the seismic deformation demands in terms of drift ratio, plastic base rotation and compression strain on rectangular wall members in frame-wall systems. The wall index defined as ratio of total wall area to the floor plan area was kept as variable in frame-wall models and its relation with the seismic demand at the base of the wall was investigated. The wall indexes of analyzed models are in the range of 0.2-2%. 4, 8 and 12-story frame-wall models were created. The seismic behavior of frame-wall models were calculated using nonlinear time-history analysis and design spectrum matched ground motion set. Analyses results revealed that the increased wall index led to significant reduction in the top and inter-story displacement demands especially for 4-story models. The calculated average inter-story drift decreased from 1.5% to 0.5% for 4-story models. The average drift ratio in 8- and 12-story models has changed from approximately 1.5% to 0.75%. As the wall index increases, the dispersion in the calculated drifts due to ground motion variability decreased considerably. This is mainly due to increase in the lateral stiffness of models that leads their fundamental period of vibration to fall into zone of the response spectra that has smaller dispersion for scaled ground motion data set. When walls were assessed according to plastic rotation limits defined in ASCE/SEI 41, it was seen that the walls in frame-wall systems with low wall index in the range of 0.2-0.6% could seldom survive the design earthquake without major damage. Concrete compressive strains calculated in all frame-wall structures were much higher than the limit allowed for design, ∑c=0.0035, so confinement is required at the boundaries. For rectangular walls above the wall index value of 1.0% nearly all walls assure at least life safety (LS) performance criteria. It is proposed that in the design of dual systems where frames and walls are connected by link and transverse beams, the minimum value of wall index should be greater than 0.6%, in order to prevent excessive damage to wall members.

Key Words
dual system; compression strain; plastic rotation; performance criteria; wall index

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Erzurum Technical University, 25050 Erzurum, Turkey

Abstract
The structural collapse of masonry structure under dynamic loading displays many possible failure mechanisms often related to interaction between structural components. Roof collapse is one of the major damage mechanisms observed in masonry structures during an earthquake. Better connection between the roof diaphragm and walls may be preventing roof collapse, but it can affect other failure mechanisms. In spite of this fact, less attention has been paid to the influence of the roof diaphragm effect on masonry structures and little research has been implemented in this field. In the present study, the roof diaphragm effect on the unreinforced masonry structure under dynamic loading has been experimentally investigated. Three one-quarter scale one-story adobe masonry house models with different roof conditions have been tested by subjecting them to sinusoid loading on a shaking table simulator. Phenomena such as failure pattern, dynamic performance of masonry structure were examined.

Key Words
masonry; roof diaphragm; shaking table test; shear resistance; drift

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna, SriLanka

Abstract
Eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) represent an attractive lateral load resisting steel system to be used in areas of high seismicity. In order to assess the likely damage for a given intensity of ground shaking, fragility functions can be used to identify the probability of exceeding a certain damage limit-state, given a certain response of a structure. This paper focuses on developing a set of fragility functions for EBF structures, considering that damage can be directly linked to the interstorey drift demand at each storey. This is done by performing a Monte Carlo Simulation of an analytical expression for the drift capacity of an EBF, where each term of the expression relies on either experimental testing results or mechanics-based reasoning. The analysis provides a set of fragility functions that can be used for three damage limit-states: concrete slab repair, damage requiring heat straightening of the link and damage requiring link replacement. Depending on the level of detail known about the EBF structure, in terms of its link section size, link length and storey number within a structure, the resulting fragility function can be refined and its associated dispersion reduced. This is done by using an analytical expression to estimate the median value of interstorey drift, which can be used in conjunction with an informed assumption of dispersion, or alternatively by using a MATLAB based tool that calculates the median and dispersion for each damage limit-state for a given set of user specified inputs about the EBF. However, a set of general fragility functions is also provided to enable quick assessment of the seismic performance of EBF structures at a regional scale.

Key Words
eccentrically-braced frame; fragility functions; steel; performance-based design; seismic assessment

Address
Gerard J. O´Reilly: ROSE Programme, UME School, IUSS Pavia, Italy

Timothy J. Sullivan: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Italy

Abstract
Recently, seismic hazard analysis has become a very significant issue. New systems and available data have been also developed that could help scientists to explain the earthquakes phenomena and its physics. Scientists have begun to accept the role of uncertainty in earthquake issues and seismic hazard analysis. However, handling the existing uncertainty is still an important problem and lack of data causes difficulties in precisely quantifying uncertainty. Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) values are usually obtained in a statistical method: regression analysis. Each of these GMPEs uses the preliminary data of the selected earthquake. In this paper, a new fuzzy method was proposed to select suitable GMPE at every intensity (earthquake magnitude) and distance (site distance to fault) according to preliminary data aggregation in their area using α cut. The results showed that the use of this method as a GMPE could make a significant difference in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) results instead of selecting one equation or using logic tree. Also, a practical example of this new method was described in Iran as one of the world´s earthquake-prone areas.

Key Words
probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA); Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE); fuzzy method; α cut

Address
Mostafa Mahmoudi: School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

MohsenAli Shayanfar, Mohammad Ali Barkhordari: Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Ehsan Jahani: Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran

Abstract
To realise the full benefits of a self-centering seismic resilient system, the designer must ensure that the entire structure does indeed re-center following an earthquake. The idealised flag-shaped hysteresis response that is often used to define the cyclic behaviour of self-centering concrete systems seldom exists and the residual drift of a building subjected to an earthquake is dependent on the realistic cyclic hysteresis response as well as the dynamic loading history. Current methods that are used to ensure that re-centering is achieved during the design of self-centering concrete systems are presented, and a series of cyclic analyses are used to demonstrate the flaws in these current procedures, even when idealised hysteresis models were used. Furthermore, results are presented for 350 time-history analyses that were performed to investigate the expected residual drift of an example self-centering concrete wall system during an earthquake. Based upon the results of these time-history analyses it was concluded that due to dynamic shake-down the residual drifts at the conclusion of the ground motion were significantly less than the maximum possible residual drifts that were observed from the cyclic hysteresis response, and were below acceptable residual drift performance limits established for seismic resilient structures. To estimate the effect of the dynamic shakedown, a residual drift ratio was defined that can be implemented during the design process to ensure that residual drift performance targets are achieved for self-centering concrete wall systems.

Key Words
residual drift; self-centering; unbonded post-tensioning; precast concrete; shear walls; seismic response

Address
Richard S. Henry, Jason M. Ingham: Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Sri Sritharan: Department Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

Abstract
An attempt has been made to incorporate the concept of collapse safety margin into the procedures proposed in the performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework for direct earthquake loss estimation, in which the collapse probability curve obtained from incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) is mathematically characterized with the S-type fitting model. The regressive collapse probability curve is then used to identify non-collapse cases and collapse cases. With the assumed lognormal probability distribution for non-collapse damage indexes, the expected direct earthquake loss ratio is calculated from the weighted average over several damage states for non-collapse cases. Collapse safety margin is shown to be strongly related with sustained damage endurance of structures. Such endurance exhibits a strong link with expected direct earthquake loss. The results from the case study on three concrete frames indicate that increase in cross section cannot always achieve a more desirable output of collapse safety margin and less direct earthquake loss. It is a more effective way to acquire wider collapse safety margin and less direct earthquake loss through proper enhancement of reinforcement in structural components. Interestingly, total expected direct earthquake loss ratio seems to be insensitive a change in cross section. It has demonstrated a consistent correlation with collapse safety margin. The results also indicates that, if direct economic loss is seriously concerned, it is of much significance to reduce the probability of occurrence of moderate and even severe damage, as well as the probability of structural collapse.

Key Words
collapse margin ratio; earthquake; damage model; loss ratio; OpenSEES; collapse probability

Address
Lina Xian: College of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China

Lina Xian: College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China

Zheng He: Department of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

Xiaoying Ou: College of Civil and Safety Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, China

Abstract
A new first-order shear deformation theory is developed for dynamic behavior of functionally graded beams. The equations governing the axial and transverse deformations of functionally graded plates are derived based on the present first-order shear deformation plate theory and the physical neutral surface concept. There is no stretching–bending coupling effect in the neutral surface based formulation, and consequently, the governing equations and boundary conditions of functionally graded beams based on neutral surface have the simple forms as those of isotropic plates. The accuracy of the present solutions is verified by comparing the obtained results with the existing solutions.

Key Words
functionally graded beam; first shear deformation theory; neutral surface position; vibration

Address
azreg Hadji, T. Hassaine Daouadji: Université Ibn Khaldoun, BP 78 Zaaroura, 14000 Tiaret, Algérie

Lazreg Hadji, T. Hassaine Daouadji and E.A. Bedia: Laboratoire des Matériaux & Hydrologie, Université de Sidi Bel Abbes, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie

Abstract
Air Traffic Control (ATC) towers play significant role in the functionality of each airport. In spite of having complex dynamic behavior and major role in mitigating post-earthquake problems, less attention has been paid to the seismic performance of these structures. Herein, seismic response of an existing ATC tower with a wall-frame structural system that has been designed and detailed according to a local building code was evaluated through the framework of performance-based seismic design. Results of this study indicated that the linear static and dynamic analyses used for the design of this tower were incapable of providing a safety margin for the required seismic performance levels especially when the tower was subjected to strong ground motions. It was concluded that, for seismic design of ATC towers practice engineers should refer to a more sophisticated seismic design approach (e.g., performance-based seismic design) which accounts for inelastic behavior of structural components in order to comply with the higher seismic performance objectives of ATC towers.

Key Words
ATC tower; performance-based design; equivalent static analysis; response spectrum analysis; nonlinear time history analysis; seismic performance levels

Address
Hossein Moravej, Suhaimi Abu Bakar: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

Mohammadreza Vafaei: Centers for Forensic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Johor, Malaysia

Abstract
Historical structures that function as a bridge from past to present are the cultural and social reflections of societies. Masonry bridges are one of the important historical structures. These bridges are vulnerable against to seismic action. In this study, linear and non-linear dynamic analyses of historical Nadir Bridge are assessed. The bridge is modelled with three dimensional finite elements. For the seismic effect, artificial acceleration records are generated considering the seismic characteristics of the region where the bridge is located. Seismic response of the bridge is investigated.

Key Words
masonry bridges; finite element model; linear and non-linear dynamic analysis; seismic response

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey


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