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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 2, June 2013
 

Abstract
A closed-form solution for a fluid-structure system is presented in this article. The closed-form is used to evaluate the finite element method results through a numeric example with consideration of high frequencies of excitation. In the example, the structure is modeled as a cantilever beam with rectangular cross-section including only shear deformation and the reservoir is assumed semi-infinite rectangular filled with compressible fluid. It is observed that finite element results deviate from the closed-form in relatively higher frequencies which is the case for the near field earthquakes.

Key Words
fluid-structure interaction; closed-form solution; shear beam; hydrodynamic pressure

Address
1 Amirhossein Keivani and Ahmad Shooshtari: Civil Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran;
2 Ahmad Aftabi Sani: Department of Civil Engineering,Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract
We numerically investigate the electronic band structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under radial corrugation. Hydrostatic pressure application to CNTs leads to a circumferential wave-like deformation of their initially circular cross-sections, called radial corrugations. Tight-binding calculation was performed to determine the band gap energy as a function of the amplitude of the radial corrugation. We found that the band gap increased with increasing radial corrugation amplitude; then, the gap started to decline at a critical amplitude and finally vanished. This non-monotonic gap variation indicated the metal-semiconductor-metal transition of CNTs with increasing corrugation amplitude. Our results provide a better insight into the structure-property relation of CNTs, thus advancing the CNT-based device development.

Key Words
carbon nanotube; radial corrugation; electronic structure; band gap energy; numerical calculation

Address
1 Hisao Taira and Motohiro Sato: Division of Engineering and Policy for Sustainable Environment, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan;
2 Hiroyuki Shima: Department of Environmental Sciences & Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37, Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan;
3 Motohiro Sato: Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan

Abstract
The present work aims at investigating the nonlinear dynamics, bifurcations, and stability of an axially accelerating beam with an intermediate spring-support. The problem of a parametrically excited system is addressed for the gyroscopic system. A geometric nonlinearity due to mid-plane stretching is considered and Hamilton\'s principle is employed to derive the nonlinear equation of motion. The equation is then reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms via Galerkin\'s method. For the system in the sub-critical speed regime, the pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to plot the frequency-response curves. The results are presented for the system with and without a three-to-one internal resonance between the first two transverse modes. Also, the global dynamics of the system is investigated using direct time integration of the discretized equations. The mean axial speed and the amplitude of speed variations are varied as the bifurcation parameters and the bifurcation diagrams of Poincare maps are constructed.

Key Words
axially moving beams; nonlinear dynamics; additional spring-support

Address
Mergen H. Ghayesh and Marco Amabili: Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 0C3

Abstract
Pounding damage has been observed frequently in major earthquakes in the form of aesthetic, minor or major structural cracks and collapse of buildings. Studies have identified a building located at one end of a row of buildings as very vulnerable to pounding damage, while buildings in the interior of the same row are assumed to be safer. This study presents the results of a shake table investigation of pounding between two and three buildings in a row. Two steel portal frames, one stiffer and another more flexible, were subjected to pounding against a frame with eight other configurations. Three pounding arrangements were considered, i.e., the reference frame (1) on the right of the second frame, (2) in the middle of two identical frames, and (3) on the right of two identical frames. Zero seismic gap was adopted for all tests. Five different ground motions are applied from both directions (right to left and left to right). The amplification of the maximum deflection due to pounding was calculated for each configuration. The results showed that, for the stiffer building in a row, row building pounding is more hazardous than pounding between only two buildings. The location of the stiffer frame, whether at the end or the middle of the row, did not have much effect on the degree of amplification observed. Additionally, for all cases considered, pounding caused less amplification for stronger ground motions, i.e., the ground motions that produced higher maximum deflection without pounding than other ground motions.

Key Words
seismic pounding; structure-structure interaction; row of buildings

Address
Sushil Khatiwada and Nawawi Chouwa: Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Abstract
The unsteady flow past a circular cylinder which starts rotating or rotary oscillating impulsively from rest in a viscous fluid is investigated for Reynolds numbers Re = 200 and 1000, rectilinear speed ratios

Key Words
rotating cylinder; rotary oscillating cylinder; navier-stokes equations; unstructured meshes; vortex shedding patterns

Address
Wei Bai: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576, Singapore


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