Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


cac
 
CONTENTS
Volume 14, Number 5, November 2014
 

Abstract
Concrete is a versatile construction material used in many engineering structures. The design of concrete structures requires a thorough understanding of their material properties under various loading conditions. Several experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the behavior of concrete. This paper is an attempt to summarize the behavioral aspects of concrete under different loading conditions. Failure models developed out of these experimental investigations are reported in this paper with their merits and demerits.

Key Words
failure criteria; concrete; uniaxial; biaxial; triaxial; unified

Address
Muthukumar and Manoj Kumar: Civil Engineering Department, BITS, Pilani – 333 031, India


Abstract
Portland cement concrete, which has higher strength and stiffness than asphalt concrete, has been widely applied on pavements. However, the brittle fracture characteristic of cement concrete restricts its application in highway pavement construction. Since the polypropylene fiber can improve the fracture toughness of cement concrete, Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) is attracting more and more attention in civil engineering. In order to study the effect of polypropylene fiber on the generation and evolution process of the local deformation band in concrete, a series of three-point bending tests were performed using the new technology of the digital speckle correlation method for FRC notched beams with different volumetric contents of polypropylene fiber. The modified Double-K model was utilized for the first time to calculate the stress intensity factors of instability and crack initiation of fiber-reinforced concrete beams. The results indicate that the polypropylene fiber can enhance the fracture toughness. Based on the modified Double-K fracture theory, the maximum fracture energy of concrete with 3.2% fiber (in volume) is 47 times higher than the plain concrete. No effort of fiber content on the strength of the concrete was found. Meanwhile to balance the strength and resistant fracture toughness, concrete with 1.6% fiber is recommended to be applied in pavement construction.

Key Words
concrete; polypropylene fiber; three-point bending beam; pressure-cracking mouth opening displacement (P-CMOD); fracture

Address
Peng Cao: Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University,Beijing, 100084, China

Changjun Zhou and Decheng Feng: School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Tehcnology, 73 Huagnhe Street, Harbin, 150090, China

Wenxin Zuo: School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT

Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANN) has been proven to be able to predict the compressive strength and elastic modulus of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with recycled aggregates (RAs) from different sources. However, ANN is itself like a black box and the output from the model cannot generate an exact mathematical model that can be used for detailed analysis. So in this study, sensitivity analysis is conducted to further examine the influence of each selected factor on the output value of the models. This is not only conducive to the determination and selection of the more important factors affecting the results, but also can provide guidance for researchers in adjusting mix proportions appropriately when designing RAC based on the variation of these factors.

Key Words
artificial neural networks; compressive strength; elastic modulus; recycled aggregate concrete; recycled aggregate; sensitivity analysis

Address
Zhen-Hua Duan and Chi-Sun Poon: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong, China

Abstract
concrete which is a composite material is frequently used in construction works. Properties and behavior of concrete are significant under the effect of different loading cases. Impact loading which is a sudden dynamic one may have destructive effects on structures. Testing apparatuses are designed to investigate the impact effect on test members. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a computational model that is inspired by the structure or functional aspects of biological neural networks. It can be defined as an emulation of biological neural system. In this study, impact parameters as acceleration and impact force values of a reinforced concrete slab are obtained by using a testing apparatus and essential test devices. Afterwards, ANN analysis which is used to model different physical dynamic processes depending on several variables is performed in the numerical part of the study. Finally, test and predicted results are compared and its seen that ANN analysis is an alternative way to predict the results successfully.

Key Words
artificial neural network; concrete; impact effect; testing apparatus

Address
R. Tuğrul Erdem: Department of Civil Engineering, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey

Abstract
This paper aims to develop a prediction model for the hardened properties of waste LCD glass that is used in concrete by analyzing a series of laboratory test results, which were obtained in our previous study. We also summarized the testing results of the hardened properties of a variety of waste LCD glass concretes and discussed the effect of factors such as the water-binder ratio (w/b), waste glass content (G) and age (t) on the concrete compressive strength, flexural strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity. This study also applied a hyperbolic function, an exponential function and a power function in a non-linear regression analysis of multiple variables and established the prediction model that could consider the effect of the water-binder ratio (w/b), waste glass content (G) and age (t) on the concrete compressive strength, flexural strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity. Compared with the testing results, the statistical analysis shows that the coefficient of determination R2 and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were 0.930.96 and 5.48.4% for the compressive strength, 0.830.89 and 8.912.2% for the flexural strength and 0.870.89 and 1.82.2% for the ultrasonic pulse velocity, respectively. The proposed models are highly accurate in predicting the compressive strength, flexural strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of waste LCD glass concrete. However, with other ranges of mixture parameters, the predicted models must be further studied.

Key Words
concrete; liquid crystal glasses; durability; mechanical properties; prediction model

Address
Chien-Chih Wang: Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Her-Yung Wang and Chi Huang: Department of Civil Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, 807, Taiwan, R.O.C.


Abstract
This paper presents the effects of the construction stages using time dependent material properties on the structural behaviour of concrete arch dams. For this purpose, a double curvature Type-5 arch dam suggested in Arch Dams symposium in England in 1968 is selected as a numerical example. Finite element models of Type-5 arch dam are modelled using SAP2000 program. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into consideration in the construction stage analysis using P-Delta plus large displacement criterion. In addition, the time dependent material strength variations and geometric variations are included in the analysis. Elasticity modulus, creep and shrinkage are computed for different stages of the construction process. In the construction stage analyses, a total of 64 construction stages are included. Each stage has generally 6000 m3 concrete volume. Total duration is taken into account as 1280 days. Maximum total step and maximum iteration for each step are selected as 200 and 50, respectively. The structural behaviour of the arch dam at different construction stages has been examined. Two different finite element analyses cases are performed. In the first case, construction stages using time dependent material properties are considered. In the second case, only linear static analysis (not considered construction stages) is taken into account. Variation of the displacements and stresses are obtained from the both analyses. It is highlighted that construction stage analysis using time dependent material strength variations and geometric variations has an important effect on the structural behaviour of arch dams. The maximum longitudinal, transverse and vertical displacements obtained from construction stages and static analyses are 1.35 mm and 0 mm; -8.44 and 6.68 mm; -4.00 and -9.90 mm, respectively. In addition, vertical displacements increase from the base to crest of the dam for both analyses. The maximum S11, S22 and S33 stresses are obtained as 1.60MPa and 2.84MPa; 1.39MPa and 2.43MPa; 0.60MPa and 0.50MPa, respectively. The differences between maximum longitudinal, transverse, and vertical stresses obtained from construction stage and static analyses are 78%, 75%, and %17, respectively. On the other hand, there is averagely 12% difference between minimum stresses for all three directions.

Key Words
concrete arch dam; construction stage analysis; finite element analysis; time dependent material properties

Address
Baris Sevim, Ahmet C. Altun

Abstract
A double-skinned composite tubular (DSCT) column, which consists of concrete and inner and outer tubes, was finally developed to overcome the weaknesses of concrete filled tube columns by reducing the self-weight of the column and confining the concrete triaxially. Research pertaining to the stiffness and strength of the column and the confining effect in a DSCT column has been carried out. However, detailed studies on the confining stress, especially the internal confining stress in a DSCT column, have not been carried out. Internal and external confining stresses should be evaluated to determine the effective confining stress in a DSCT column. In this paper, the confining stresses of concrete before and after insertion of an inner tube were studied using finite element analysis. The relationship between the internal or external confining stresses and the theoretical confining stress was investigated by parametric studies. New modified formulae for the yield and buckling failure conditions based on the formulae suggested by former researchers were proposed. Through analytical studies, the modified formulae were verified to be effective for economic and reasonable design of the inner tubes in a DSCT column under the same confining stress.

Key Words
concrete; concrete structures; concrete-filled hollow steel sections; confined concrete; finite elements method; non-linear analysis

Address
Deok Hee Won and Taek Hee Han: Coastal Engineering, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 426-744, Republic of Korea

Seungjun Kim and Jung-Hwa Lee: Marine Research Institute, Samsung Heavy Industries Co. Ltd, 217 Munjin-ro Daejeon,
137-857, Republic of Korea

Young-Jong Ka: Department of Architectural, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anamro Seoul,156-701, Republic of Korea



Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com