Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


cac
 
CONTENTS
Volume 14, Number 2, August 2014
 

Abstract
The force transfer mechanism in positive moment continuity details for prestressed concrete girder bridges is investigated in this paper using a three-dimensional detailed finite element model. Positive moment reinforcement in the form of hairpin bars as recommended by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report No 519 is incorporated in the model. The cold construction joint that develops at the interface between girder ends and continuity diaphragms is also simulated via contact elements. The model is then subjected to the positive moment and corresponding shear forces that would develop over the service life of the bridge. The stress distribution in the continuity diaphragm and the axial force distribution in the hairpin bars are presented. It was found that due to the asymmetric configuration of the hairpin bars, asymmetric stress distribution develops at the continuity diaphragm, which can be exacerbated by other asymmetric factors such as skewed bridge configurations. It was also observed that when the joint is subjected to a positive moment, the tensile force is transferred from the girder end to the continuity diaphragm only through the hairpin bars due to the lack of contact between the both members at the construction joint. As a result, the stress distribution at girder ends was found to be concentrated around the hairpin bars influence area, rather than be resisted by the entire girder composite section. Finally, the results are used to develop an approach for estimating the cracking moment capacity at girder ends based on a proposed effective moment of inertia.

Key Words
continuity detail; positive moment; diaphragm; axial force; finite element

Address
Tanvir Hossain: SBM Offshore, Houston, TX, USA

Ayman M. Okeil: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,
LA 70803, USA


Abstract
LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) is one of the most important utmost accidents for Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) due to its coupled effect of high temperature and inner pressure. In this paper, heat conduction analysis is used to obtain the LOCA temperature distribution of PCCV. Then the elastic internal force of PCCV under LOCA temperature is analyzed by using both simplified theoretical method and FEM (finite element methods) method. Considering the coupled effect of LOCA temperature, a nonlinear elasto-plasitic analysis is conducted for PCCV under utmost internal pressure considering three failure criteria. Results show that the LOCA temperature distribution is strongly nonlinear along the shell thickness at the early time; the moment result of simplified analysis is well coincident with the one of numerical analysis at weak constraint area; while in the strong constrained area, the value of moments and membrane forces fluctuate dramatically; the simplified and numerical analysis both show that the maximum moment occurs at 6hrs after LOCA.; the strain of PCCV under LOCA temperature is larger than the one of no temperature under elasto-plastic analysis; the LOCA temperature of 6hrs has the greatest influence on the ultimate bearing capacity with 8.43% decrease for failure criteria 1 and 2.65% decrease for failure criteria 3.

Key Words
prestressed concrete containment vessel; loss of coolant accident; mechanical analysis; temperature distribution

Address
Zhen Zhou, Chang Wu, Shao-ping Meng and Jing Wu: Southeast University, Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210096, China

Abstract
The article presents the statistical method of grouping the results of the compressive strength of concrete in continuous production. It describes the method of dividing the series of compressive strength results into batches of statistically stable strength parameters at specific time intervals, based on the standardized concept of \"concrete familY\". The article presents the examples of calculations made for two series of concrete strength results, from which sets of decreased strength parameters were separated. When assessing the quality of concrete elements and concrete road surfaces, the principal issue is the control of the compressive strength parameters of concrete. Large quantities of concrete mix manufactured in a continuous way should be subject to continuous control. Standardized approach to assessing the concrete strength proves to be insufficient because it does not allow for the detection of subsets of the decreased strength results, which in turn makes it impossible to make adjustments to the concrete manufacturing process and to identify particular product or area on site with decreased concrete strength. In this article two independent methods of grouping the test results of concrete with statistically stable strength parameters were proposed, involving verification of statistical hypothesis based on statistical tests: Student

Key Words
division of compressive strength results of concrete; family of concrete; compressive strength of concrete; reliability of structure

Address
Józef Jasiczak and Marcin Kanoniczak: Institute of Structural Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 5, 61-138 Poznań, Poland



Abstract
Damping as a material property plays an important role in decreasing dynamic response of structures. However, very little is known about the evaluation and application of the actual damping of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Confined Reinforced Concrete (FRP-C RC) material which is widely adopted in civil engineering at present. This paper first proposes a stress-dependent damping model for FRP-C RC material using a validated Finite Element Model (FEM), then based on this damping-stress relation, an iterative scheme is developed for the computations of the non-linear damping and dynamic response of FRP-C RC columns at any given harmonic exciting frequency. Numerical results show that at resonance, a considerable increase of the loss factor of the FRP-C RC columns effectively reduces the dynamic response of the columns, and the columns with lower concrete strength, FRP volume ratio and axial compression ratio or higher longitudinal reinforcement ratio have stronger damping values, and can relatively reduce the resonant response.

Key Words
reinforced concrete columns; fiber reinforced polymers; energy dissipation; damping; finite element method; dynamic response

Address
Xiaoran Li, Yuanfeng Wang and Li Su: Department of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, No.3 Shang Yuan Cun, Hai Dian District, Beijing, China


Abstract
In recent years, the emergence of nanotechnology and nanomaterial has created hopes to improve various properties of concrete. Nano silica as one of these materials has been introduced as a cement replacement material for concrete mixture in construction applications. It can modify the properties of concrete, due to high pozzolanic reactions and also making a denser microstructure. On the other hand, it is well recognized that the use of mineral admixtures such as silica fume affects the mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials. In addition, the superior performance of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and self-consolidating mortars (SCM) over conventional concrete is generally related to their ingredients. This study investigates the effect of nano silica and silica fume on the compressive strength and chloride permeability of self-consolidating mortars. Tests include compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability test, water permeability, capillary water absorption, and surface electrical resistance, which carried out on twenty mortar mixtures containing zero to 6 percent of nano silica and silica fume. Results show that SCMs incorporating nano silica had higher compressive strength at various ages. In addition, results show that nano silica has enhanced the durability SCMs and reduced the chloride permeability.

Key Words
nano silica; silica fume; compressive strength; chloride durability, self-consolidating mortars

Address
Mahdi Mahdikhani and Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424,
Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran


Abstract
Cyclic test of the columns is of practical relevance to the performance of compression members during an earthquake loading. The strength, ductility and energy absorption capabilities of reinforced concrete (RC) columns subjected to cyclic loading have been estimated by many researchers. These characteristics are not normally inherent in plain concrete but can be achieved by effectively confining columns through transverse reinforcement. An extensive experimental program, in which performance of four RC columns detailed according to provisions of ACI-318-08 was studied in contrast with that of four columns confined by a new proposed technique. This paper presents performance of columns reinforced by standard detailing and cast with 25 and 32 MPa concrete. The experimentally achieved load-displacement hysteresis and backbone curves of two columns are presented. The two approaches which work in conjunction with Response 2000 have been suggested to draw analytical back bone curves of RC columns. The experimental and analytical backbone curves are found in good agreement. This investigation gives a detail insight of the response of RC columns subjected to cyclic loads during their service life. The suggested analytical procedures will be available to the engineers involved in design to appraise the capacity of RC columns.

Key Words
RC columns; hysteretic behaviour; computer based estimation; backbone curves; cyclic loading; performance simulation

Address
M. Rizwan, M. Ilyas and T.R. Stacey: School of Mining Engineering, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

M. Rizwan and M. Ilyas: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

Chaudhary: Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Raja Rizwan Hussain: Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com