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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 6, June 2013
 

Abstract
Direct displacement-based design (DDBD) represents an innovative philosophy for seismic design of structures. When structural considerations are more critical, DDBD design should be carried on the basis of limiting material strains since structural damage is always strain related. In this case, the outcome of DDBD is strongly influenced by the displacement demand of the structural element for the target limit strains. Experimental studies have shown that anchorage slip may contribute significantly to the total displacement capacity of R/C column elements. However, in the previous studies, anchorage slip effect is either ignored or lumped into flexural deformations by applying the equivalent strain penetration length. In the light of the above, an attempt is made in this paper to include explicitly anchorage slip effect in DDBD of R/C column elements. For this purpose, a new computer program named RCCOLA-DBD is developed for the DDBD of single R/C elements for limiting material strains. By applying this program, more than 300 parametric designs are conducted to investigate the influence of anchorage slip effect as well as of numerous other parameters on the seismic design of R/C members according to this methodology.

Key Words
seismic design; reinforced concrete; displacement-based; anchorage slip; material strains

Address
P.E. Mergos; Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, Chalkida 34400, Greece

Abstract
The moment-curvature relation for simple bending is a well-studied subject and the classical moment-curvature diagram is commonly found in literature. The influence of axial forces has generally been considered as compression onto symmetrically reinforced cross-sections, thus strain at the reference fiber never has been an issue. However, when dealing with integral structures, which are usually statically indeterminate in different degrees, these concepts are not sufficient. Their horizontal elements are often completely restrained, which, under imposed deformations, leads to moderate compressive or tensile axial forces. The authors propose to analyze conventional beam cross-sections with moment-curvature diagrams considering asymmetrically reinforced cross-sections under combined influence of bending and moderate axial force. In addition a new diagram is introduced that expands the common moment-curvature relation onto the strain variation at the reference fiber. A parametric study presented in this article reveals the significant influence of selected cross-section parameters.

Key Words
non-linear concrete; moment-curvature diagram; axial strain; creep; shrinkage; strain plane

Address
T. Petschke, H. Corres, J.I. Ezeberry and A. Pérez; E.T.S.I. de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, UPM, Madrid, Spain
A. Recupero; DIC, UNIME, Messina, Italy

Abstract
An experimental investigation of mechanical properties of jute fiber-reinforced concrete (JFRC) has been reported for making a suitable construction material in terms of fiber reinforcement. Two jute fiber reinforced concretes, called jute fiber reinforced normal strength concrete (JFRNSC) and jute fiber- reinforced high-fluidity concrete (JFRHFC), were tested in compression, flexure and splitting tension. Compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strengths of specimens were investigated to four levels of jute fiber contents by volume fraction. From the test results, Jute fiber can be successfully used for normal strength concrete (NSC) and high-fluidity concrete (HFC). Particularly, HFC with jute fibers shows relatively higher improvement of strength property than that of normal strength concrete.

Key Words
jute fiber-reinforced concrete; mechanical property; splitting tensile strength; compressive strength; flexural strength

Address
Joo-seok Kim, Hyoung-ju Lee and Yeol Choi; School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Pookgu, Daegu, Korea

Abstract
There is a wide variety of existing Genetic Algorithms (GA) operators and parameters in the literature. However, there is no unique technique that shows the best performance for different classes of optimization problems. Hence, the evaluation of these operators and parameters, which influence the effectiveness of the search process, must be carried out on a problem basis. This paper presents a comparison for the influence of GA operators and parameters on the performance of the damage identification problem using the finite element model updating method (FEMU). The damage is defined as reduction in bending rigidity of the finite elements of a reinforced concrete beam. A certain damage scenario is adopted and identified using different GA operators by minimizing the differences between experimental and analytical modal parameters. In this study, different selection, crossover and mutation operators are compared with each other based on the reliability, accuracy and efficiency criteria. The exploration and exploitation capabilities of different operators are evaluated. Also a comparison is carried out for the parallel and sequential GAs with different population sizes and the effect of the multiple use of some crossover operators is investigated. The results show that the roulettewheel selection technique together with real valued encoding gives the best results. It is also apparent that the Non-uniform Mutation as well as Parent Centric Normal Crossover can be confidently used in the damage identification problem. Nevertheless the parallel GAs increases both computation speed and the efficiency of the method.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; finite element model updating; damage detection; genetic algorithms; statistical comparison

Address
Yildirim Serhat Erdogan and Pelin Gundes Bakir; Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
Asymmetrical reinforcement for circular sections in wall piles is an efficient construction component with reduced embodied energy. It has been proven that asymmetrical reinforced wall piles may save more than 50% of the reinforcement than the traditional symmetrically reinforced circular sections. The use of this new type of structural member increases the number of variables in the design problem, which makes its use by engineers more complicated. In order to facilitate the use of the asymmetrically reinforced piles, this paper presents a criterion for the design of this type of structural member. The chosen criterion has been analyzed with the help of flexural capacity-cost curves. The new criterion is similar to the design procedure traditionally used for RC beams.

Key Words
wall piles; asymmetric reinforcement; strength design criteria

Address
E. Hernández-Montes and L.M. Gil-Martín; Department of Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Spain
P. Alameda-Hernández; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Abstract
In the current study, a method for concrete compressive strength prediction (based on cement strength class), incorporated in a software package developed by the authors for the estimation of concrete service life under harmful environments, is presented and validated. Prediction of concrete compressive strength, prior to real experimentation, can be a very useful tool for a first mix screening. Given the fact that lower limitations in strength have been set in standards, to attain a minimum of service life, a strength approach is a necessity. Furthermore, considering the number of theoretical attempts on strength predictions so far, it can be seen that although they lack widespread accepted validity, certain empirical expressions are still widely used. The method elaborated in this study, it offers a simple and accurate, compressive strength estimation, in very good agreement with experimental results. A modified version of the Feret\'s formula is used, since it contains only one adjustable parameter, predicted by knowing the cement strength class. The approach presented in this study can be applied on any cement type, including active additions (fly ash, silica fume) and age.

Key Words
cement; compressive strength; concrete; modeling; software; strength class

Address
V.G. Papadakis; Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece,Agrinio, Greece
S. Demis; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras/AEIPLOUS Institute for Innovation & Sustainable Development, Patras, Greece

Abstract
This paper improves genetic programming (GP) and weight genetic programming (WGP) and proposes soft-computing polynomials (SCP) for accurate prediction and visible polynomials. The proposed genetic programming system (GPS) comprises GP, WGP and SCP. To represent confined compressive strength and strain of circular concrete columns in meaningful representations, this paper conducts sensitivity analysis and applies pruning techniques. Analytical results demonstrate that all proposed models perform well in achieving good accuracy and visible formulas; notably, SCP can model problems in polynomial forms. Finally, concrete compressive strength and lateral steel ratio are identified as important to both confined compressive strength and strain of circular concrete columns. By using the suggested formulas, calculations are more accurate than those of analytical models. Moreover, a formula is applied for confined compressive strength based on current data and achieves accuracy comparable to that of neural networks.

Key Words
genetic programming; weighted genetic programming; models; compressive strength; strain; concrete columns

Address
Hsing-Chih Tsai; Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


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