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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 4, December 2013
 

Abstract
Description and theory of spin coating technique has been elaborately outlined and a spin coating machine designed and fabricated using affordable components. The system was easily built with interdisciplinary knowledge of mechanics, fluid mechanics and electronics. This equipment employs majorly three basic components and two circuit units in its operation. These include a high speed dc motor, a proximity sensor mounted at a distance of about 15 mm from a reflective metal attached to the spindle of the motor to detect every passage of the reflective metal at its front and generate pulses. The pulses are transmitted to a micro-controller which process them into rotational speed (revolution per minute) and displays it on a lead crystal display (LCD) which is also a component of the micro-controller. The circuit units are a dc power supply unit and a PWM motor speed controlling unit. The various components and circuit units of this equipment are housed in a metal casing made of an 18 gauge black metal sheet designed with a total area of 1, 529.2 cm2. To illustrate the use of the spin-coating system, ZnO sol-gel films were prepared and characterized using SEM, XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR and RBS and the result agrees well with that obtained from standard equipment and a speed of up to 9000 RPM has been achieved.

Key Words
spin coating; proximity sensor; micro-controller, components; equipment, substrate

Address
M.D. Tyona: Department of Physics, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract
A comprehensive theory of the spin coating technique has been reviewed and the basic principles and parameters controlling the process are clearly highlighted, which include spin speed, spin time, acceleration and fume exhaust. The process generally involves four stages: a dispense stage, substrate acceleration stage, a stage of substrate spinning at a constant rate and fluid viscous forces dominate fluid thinning behaviour and a stage of substrate spinning at a constant rate and solvent evaporation dominates the coating thinning behaviour. The study also considered some common thin film defects associated with this technique, which include comet, striation, chucks marks environmental sensitivity and edge effect and possible remedies.

Key Words
substrate; centrifugal force; spin coating; thin film; photolithography; acceleration

Address
M.D. Tyona: Department of Physics, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract
We have described primary studies on conductivity and molecular weight of polyaniline separately in the electric and magnetic fields when it is used in a field effect experimental configuration. We report further studies on doped in-situ deposited polyaniline. First we have chemically synthesized polyaniline by ammonium peroxodisulfate in acidic aques and organic solutions at different times. Then we measured mass and conductivity and obtained the best time of polymerizations. In continue, we repeated these reactions separately under different electric and magnetic fields in constant time and measured mass and conductivity. The polyaniline is characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Visible spectroscopy and electrical conductivity. High molecular weight polyanilines are synthesized under electric field, Mw = 520000-680000 g/mol, with Mw/Mn = 2-2.5. The UV-Visible spectra of polyanilines oxidized by ammonium peroxodisulfate and protonated with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (PANi-DBSA), in N-methylpyrolidone (NMP), show a smeared polaron peak shifted into the visible. Electrical conductivity of polyanilines has been studied by four-probe method. The conductivity of the films of emeraldine protonated by DBSA cast from NMP are higher than 500 and 25 S/cm under 10 KV/m of potential) electric field and 0.1 T magnetic field, respectively. It shows an enhanced resistance to ageing too. By the next steps, we carried chemical polymerization at the best electric and magnetic fields at different times. Finally, resulted in finding the best time and amount of the fields. The longer polymerization time and the higher magnetic field can lead to degradation of polyaniline films and decrease conductivity and molecular mass.

Key Words
chemical polymerization; polyaniline; electric field; magnetic field

Address
Seyed Hossein Hosseini: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Tehran, Iran
S. Jamal Gohari: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science Imam Hossein University, Babaee Express Way, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
To obtain bronze with good mechanical properties and high wear resistance, a new bronze (CADZ) is proposed on the basis of various fundamental information. The CADZ consists of the elements Al10.5, Fe4.2, Sn3.7 and Ni3.1, and its design is based on Cu-Al10.5 alloy. The Cu-10.5%Al is very hard and brittle. To obtain the high material ductility of the Cu-10.5%Al alloy, an attempt was made to add a few percent of Sn. Moreover, to make high strength of the Cu alloy, microstructure with small grains was created by the proper amount of Fe and Ni (Fe/Ni = 0.89). The mechanical properties of the CADZ sample have been examined experimentally, and those were compared with commercial bronzes. The tensile strength and wear resistance of CADZ are higher than those for commercial bronzes. Although the ductility of CADZ is the lower level, the strain to failure of CADZ is about 2.0~5.0% higher than that for the Cu-Al10.5 alloy. Details of the microstructural effects on the mechanical properties in the CADZ sample were further discussed using various experimental results.

Key Words
bronze; tensile property; fatigue property: wear property; microstructure

Address
Mitsuhiro Okayasu, Yushi Ninomiya and Tetsuro Shiraishi:epartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577, Japan

Daiki Izuka: Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Aza Ebinokuchi, Tsuchiya, Yurihonjo, Akita, 015-0055, Japan

Yuki Manabe: Dozen-Kogyo Co. Ltd., 377 Naranoki, Saijyo, Ehime, 793-0065, Japan


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