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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 4, December 2016
 

Abstract
This paper presents a numerical model based on a UTCHEM simulator to simulate surfactant flushing process to remediate diesel contaminated sand column. For this purpose, we modeled remediation process under 10000 and 20000 ppm initial concentrations of diesel. Various percent-mass sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) considered in our model. The model results indicated that 0.3 percent-mass of SDS at 10000 ppm and 0.1 percent-mass of SDS at 20000 ppm initial diesel concentration had maximum removal perdition which is in agreement with the experiment results. For 10000 ppm diesel concentrations, the coefficient of determination (R2) and index of agreement (IA) between the model result and the experimental data were 0.9952 and 0.9695, respectively, and for 20000 ppm diesel concentrations, R2 and IA were 0.9977 and 0.9935, respectively. The sensitivity analysis of permeability illustrated that in all diesel concentrations and SDS percent-mass with increasing permeability the model resulted in more removal efficiency.

Key Words
numerical model; UTCHEM simulator; diesel; SDS; sensitivity analysis

Address
Gholamreza Asadollahfardi, Nazila Noorifar: Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Ahmad Khodadadi Darban: Environmental Engineering, Department of Mining Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Milad Rezaee: Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Synthesized hydroxyapatite (Hyd) and Fe-hydroxyapatite (Fe-Hyd) composite were used for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solutions in this study. The effect of adsorbent amount, pH and initial MB concentration were carried out to investigate in the aqueous solution. The kinetic study shows that the MB adsorption process with Hyd or Fe-Hyd follow pseudo-second order kinetic model. Experimental results are well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Hyd and Fe-Hyd were obtained as 2.90 mg/g and 5.64 mg/g for MB according to Langmuir Isotherm models, respectively. Fe-Hyd composite increased the adsorption capacity of Hyd by 1.95 times that Hyd. It is concluded that Fe-Hyd composite is promising and economical adsorbent for MB removal in the aqueous solution.

Key Words
adsorption; composite; dye; hydroxyapatite; synthesis

Address
Corlu Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Namik Kemal University,No:13 59860 corlu / TEKİRDAG, Turkey

Abstract
The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is essential for every community; and, it is currently a major challenge in Nigeria. This paper provides an overview of the current MSW management trends in Nigeria and proposes new sustainable MSW management systems. Across Nigerian cities, MSW management is characterized by inefficient collection and transportation to disposal sites. Collection services do not reach some unplanned areas and slums due to poor street network. Even some planned areas are not reached by collection services. The informal sector contributes to waste collection, resource recovery and recycling; however, their activities are not recognized by the governments. Markets exist for recovered materials but more efforts need to be geared towards intensive recovery of materials and expansion of these markets. Despite the high proportion of putrescible matter in MSW, the only form of treatment commonly used currently is open burning for volume reduction. The high organic fraction presents a great opportunity for composting and anaerobic digestion. Ultimate disposal is currently done in open dumpsites. This needs to be upgraded to engineered landfills that are properly sited and adequately operated by well trained personnel. There is an emerging waste stream of concern, electronic-waste (e-waste), that requires urgent sustainable management as e-waste are currently co-disposed with other waste streams or burnt in the open posing detrimental health impacts.

Key Words
e-waste; integrated waste management; municipal solid waste (MSW); Nigeria; resource recovery and recycling; scavengers

Address
Oliver T. Iorhemen, Sam B. Onoja: Department of Agric. & Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria

Meshach I. Alfa: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria

Abstract
The biodegradability and decomposition efficiencies increase with the pre-treatment of sludge in a digestion process. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound coupled with potassium permanganate oxidation as a disintegration method and digestibility of aerobic reactor fed with disintegrated sludge with ultrasound coupled potassium permanganate were investigated. The first stage of the study focused on determining the optimum condition for ultrasonic pre-treatment for achieving better destruction efficiency of sludge. The second part of the study, the aerobic digestibility of sludge disintegrated with ultrasound and potassium permanganate oxidation alone and combined were examined comparatively. The results showed that when 20 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment applied, the specific energy output was 49384 kJ/kgTS with disintegration degree of 58.84%. During the operation of aerobic digester, VS/TS ratios of digesters fed with disintegrated sludge decreased indicating that disintegration methods could obviously enhance aerobic digestion performance. The highest reduction in volatile solids was 75% in the digester fed with ultrasound+potassium permanganate disintegrated sludge at the end of the operation compared to digester fed with raw sludge. Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) levels in sludge supernatant increased with this combined method significantly. Besides, it promoted the production of OH, thus enhancing the release of Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) from the sludge. Disintegration with all methods used in this study could not improve Capillary Suction Time (CST) reduction in disintegrated digesters during the operation. The results demonstrated that the combined ultrasound treatment and potassium permanganate oxidation method improves the biodegradability compared to control reactor or their single application.

Key Words
aerobic digestion; disintegration; ultrasonic treatment; potassium permanganate disintegration

Address
Harran University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Osmanbey Campus, 63000, sanliurfa, Turkey


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