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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 2, June 2013
 

Abstract
Mercury (Hg) dynamics in the boreal environment have been a subject of concern in recent decades, due to the exposure of local populations to the contaminant. Land use, because of its impact on mercury inputs, has been highlighted as a key player in the sources and eventual concentrations of the heavy metal. In order to evaluate the impact of watershed disturbances on Hg dynamics in frequently fished, large boreal lakes, we studied sediment cores retrieved at the focal point of eight large lakes of Quebec (Canada), six with watersheds affected by land uses such as logging and/or mining, and two with pristine watersheds, considered as reference lakes. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we correlated the recent evolution of land uses (e.g., logging and mining activities) and morphological characteristics of the watershed (e.g., mean slope of the drainage area, vegetation cover) to total Hg concentrations (THg) in sedimentary records. In each core, THg gradually increased over recent years with maximum values between 70 and 370 ng/g, the lowest mercury concentrations corresponding to the pristine lake cores. The Hg Anthropogenic Sedimentary Enrichment Factor (ASEF) values range from 2 to 15. Surprisingly, we noticed that the presence of intense land uses in the watershed does not necessarily correspond to noticeable increases of THg in lake sediments, beyond the normal increment that can be attributed to Hg atmospheric deposition since the beginning of the industrial era. Rather, the terrestrial Hg inputs of boreal lakes appear to be influenced by watershed characteristics such as mean slopes and vegetation cover.

Key Words
Hg; boreal forest; lake sediments; organic matter; GIS approach

Address
M. Moingt, M. Lucotte, S. Paquet: GEOTOP-UQAM, Institut des Sciences de l\'Environnement, Montreal, Canada; J.-S. Beaulne: Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Environmental Microbial Genomics Group, Lyon, France

Abstract
Rainwater runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants having tremendous impact on the receiving aquatic environment. In the present study, trace element transport by the surface runoff in the predominantly urban catchment of Guwahati city, India was monitored with a view to determine the chemical denudation rates of the land surface. A number of trace metals, namely Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the runoff after 70 major rain events within the city. Cadmium was found to be the least abundant metal and Iron was the most abundant metal in the runoff. The results are interpreted on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in their concentrations. These variations are quite large in some of the events and reflect changes in the local environmental setting, differences in water utilization, variations in runoff volume, gradient and quality.

Key Words
surface runoff; trace metals; urban catchment; diurnal variation; rain event

Address
Upama Devi and Krishna G. Bhattacharyya: Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India

Abstract
The study examined the effect of urbanization on the water quality of Nwaorie and Otamiri Rivers in Owerri metropolis, Imo State, South-East Nigeria. Water samples were collected from Nwaorie and Otamiri Rivers from four sampling stations up and down stream. Water parameters analyzed using standard procedures were: color, turbidity, temperature, pH, total hardness, total solids, metals (Iron and magnesium), anions (nitrate and ammonia) and Fecal coliform. Results showed increased levels of coloration, iron, ammonia, turbidity and fecal coliform which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits for drinking water. Increase in these parameters indicated influx of industrial effluent from the nearby industries and indiscriminate disposal of wastes at the bank of the rivers. Application of ANOVA showed various degree of variation in pollutants levels between the two rivers and at different sampling points. River Nwaorie was observed to be more impacted than River Otamiri. High values of iron observed from the study could be deleterious to human health if the river water is consumedwithout treatment. The study, therefore, recommended proper waste management and disposal as well aseffluent treatments in Owerri municipal against pollution of surface water.

Key Words
surface runoff; trace metals; urban catchment; diurnal variation; rain event

Address
Emmanuel T. Ogbomida: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Pollution Unit, National Centre for Energy and Environment, Energy Commission of Nigeria, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria; Chukwudi N. Emeribe: Environmental Pollution and Remediation unit of the National Centre for Energy and Environment, Energy Commission of Nigeria, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Abstract
Agricultural practice and improper waste disposal in developing regions have resulted in environmental degradation in land and waters, for which low-cost, proven solutions are needed. We demonstrate in the laboratory the applications of composting and trickling filter techniques to treat olive mill wastes that can be implemented in the West Bank and other regions of the world. To a pomace waste sample from a California mill, we amended with saw dust (wood carbon source) and baking soda (NaHCO3 alkalinity) at weight ratios of waste/wood/NaHCO3 at 70:27:1 and composted it for periods of 11 and 48 days; the compost was used as an additive to potting soil for transplanting. The pomace sample was also blended into slurry and introduced to a water-circulating pond and trickling filter system (P/TF) to examine any inhibitive effect of the pomace on biological removal of the organic waste. The results showed the compost-amended potting soil supported plant growth without noticeable stress over 34 days and the P/TF system removed BOD and COD by >90% from the waste liquid within 2 days, with a first-order rate constant of 1.9 d-1 in the pond. An onsite treatment design is proposed that promises implementation for agricultural waste disposal in developing regions.

Key Words
olive mill waste; compost; trickling filter; aeration pond

Address
Xinhua Li, Ching-Chieh Lin, Daniel Sweeney, Jessica Earl and Andy Hong: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, 110 Central Campus Drive, MCE, Suite 2000, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA

Abstract
This study investigated the concentrations of odourous compounds in air, leachate, stream and well in and around Taju-Bello dumpsite. Meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity) and six odour families comprising sulphur (H2S), ammonia (NH3), aromatic (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-xylene, m-xylene), aliphatic (hexane), oxygenated (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) and halogenated (tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbontetrachloride) compounds were measured. Meteorological parameters suggested low dispersal of pollutants at L1 with possible perspiration and suffocation from exposure to high temperature, relative humidity and low wind velocity. The trend of abundance of odourous compounds at studied locations is of the order dumpsite (L1) > leachate (L4) > 100 m away from dumpsite (L2) > 200 m away from dumpsite (L3) > stream (L5) > well (L6). H2S, Oxygenated and aromatic compounds were the major contributors to odour strength in these locations. Correlation, factor and cluster analyses of the data revealed similarities of sources as biogenics and xenobiotics inherent in the wastes as the main sources of these odourous compounds.

Key Words
odourous compounds; dumpsite; GC-FID; meteorological parameters; cluster analysis

Address
L. Azeez, I.O. Abdulsalami: Industrial and Environmental Chemistry Unit, Chemical Sciences Department, Fountain University, Osogbo, Nigeria; O.A. Oyedeji: Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Nigeria; S.O. Adewuyi: Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Abstract
A preliminary investigation to establish the status of contamination of trace metals in the Western coast of Ghana was conducted prior to the commercial production of crude oil in the area. The study revealed the presence of heavy metals such as Pb (4.00-79.64 mg/kg), As (8.81-236 mg/kg), Cu (12.86-108.06 mg/kg), V (28.07-953.32 mg/kg), Zn (7.08-264.25 mg/kg), Cr (101.69-1366.62 mg/kg), Ni (42.41-451.43 mg/kg), Mn (16.77-1890.45 mg/kg), Br (7.66-142.78 mg/kg), Ti (542.03-19960 mg/kg) and Fe (7472.88-97120 mg/kg) at six sites sampled along the coast. With the exception of Ti and Fe which showed no variation in metal concentration, the rest of the metals varied significantly among the sampled locations. Potential ecological risk of metals particularly of Co, As and Br which exhibited extreme enrichment of the sediments indicates considerable metal pollution in the studied areas. The degree of contamination is of particular concern especially to benthic biota that inhabit this environment for survival.

Key Words
sediment; heavy metals; ecological risk; enrichment; degree of contamination

Address
Harriet Kuranchie-Mensah, Juliet Osei, Sampson M. Atiemo, Cynthia Laar, Michael Ackah, Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Sara Blankson-Arthur: Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre, National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Accra-Ghana; Benjamin J.B. Nyarko, Shiloh K. Osae: National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Accra-Ghana; Prince J. Adeti: Nuclear Application Centre, National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Accra-Ghana


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