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CONTENTS
Volume 1, Number 2, June 2012
 

Abstract
Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons is found to be an attractive process for remediation of contaminated habitats. However the poor bioavailability of hydrocarbons results in low biodegradation rates. Cyclodextrins are known to increase the bioavailability of variety of hydrophobic compounds. In the present work we purified the Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase (CGTase) enzyme which is responsible for converting starch into cyclodextrins and studied its role on biodegradation of diesel oil contaminated soil. Purification of CGTase from Enterobacter cloacae was done which resulted in 6 fold increase in enzyme activity. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7, temperature 60

Key Words
diesel oil; bioavailability; cyclodextrin; cylodextrin glucanotransferase

Address
Sivaraman C, Anasuya Ganguly and Srikanth Mutnuri: Applied and Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani - K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa 403726, India

Abstract
Our study investigated the effects of Solanum macrocarpon (African eggplant) on haematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats exposed to urban air pollution (O3, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and VOC). Male albino Wistar rats were exposed for 63 days either to urban air pollution without treatment (A); oral supplementation with Solanum macrocarpon given at 36 and 75 mg/kg body weight (BW), representing C and D respectively and exposed to air pollution; oral supplementation with Solanum macrocarpon given at 75 mg/kg BW after exposure to air pollution (B); or kept in animal house without exposure to air pollution (E). Animals exposed to air pollution showed significant alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters signaling that the blood and organs were badly injured. There were significant elevations in white blood cells (WBC) and its indices, reduction in red blood cells (RBC) and significant depletions of non-enzymic antioxidants, total protein and increase in lipid peroxidation values. Solanum macrocarpon supplementation in the feed of animals halted significantly the deleterious effects of air pollution, with co-administration during exposure given better results.

Key Words
Solanum macrocarpon; urban air pollution; haematological indices; biochemical indices; wistar rat

Address
A.A. Olajire: Industrial and Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; L. Azeez: Department of Chemical Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Nigeria

Abstract
Clean development mechanism (CDM) validity study was conducted to suggest better and more adaptable CDM scenario on water treatment plant (WTP). Potential four scenarios for CDM project; improvement of intake pumping efficiency, hydro power plant construction, solar panel construction and system optimization of mechanical mixing process were evaluated on S-WTP in Korea. Net present value (NPV) of each scenario was estimated based on sensitivity analysis with the variable factors to investigate the CDM validity percentile. Hydro power plant construction was the best option for CDM business with 97.76% validity and $1,127,069 mean profit by 9,813 tonsCO2e/yr reduction. CDM validity on improvement of intake pumping efficiency was 90.2% with $124,305 mean profit by huge amount of CO2 mitigation (10,347 tonsCO2e/yr). System optimization of mechanical mixing process reduced 15% of energy consumption (3,184 tonsCO2e/yr) and its CDM validity and mean profit was 77.25% and $23,942, respectively. Solar panel construction could make the effect of 14,094 tonsCO2 mitigation annually and its CDM validity and mean profit was 64.68% and $228,487, respectively.

Key Words
water treatment plant; CO2 emission and mitigation; CDM business; sensitivity analysis

Address
Daeseung Kyung and Woojin Lee: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea

Abstract
Nitrate removal from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl2 and phosphoric acid activated carbon developed from pomegranate peel with particle size 0.4 mm. Potassium nitrate solution was used in batch adsorption experiments for nitrate removal from water. The effects of activated carbon dosage, time of contact, and pH were studied. The equilibrium time was fond to be 45 min. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms namely Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir fit the isotherm with the theoretical adsorption capacity (qt) was fond 78.125 mg g-1. Adsorption kinetics data were modeled using the pseudo-first, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion models. The results indicate that the second-order model best describes adsorption kinetic data. Results show activated carbon produced from pomegranate is effective for removal of nitrate from aqueous solution.

Key Words
adsorption; kinetics; equilibrium; isotherm; activated carbon; pomegranate peel

Address
I. Rouabeh and M. Amrani: Laboratory of Soft Technology, Recovering, and Sustainable Development Faculty of Science, M\'Hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, Algeria

Abstract
Decolourization potential of white rot fungal organism, coriolus versicolor, was investigated in a batch reactor, for textile dye industry wastewater. The influence of process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration on the decolourization of textile dye wastewater was examined by using Response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum decolourization was attained at: pH- 6.8, temperature — 27.9

Key Words
decolourization; RSM; coriolus versicolor; optimization; kinetics; COD

Address
S. Sathian, G. Radha, V. Shanmuga Priya, M. Rajasimman and C. Karthikeyan: Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract
Pistachio shell (Pistacia vera) (PS), a low-cost material, has been utilized for the removal of the Cr(VI) ions after treatment with citric acid. Batch experimental steps were applied to obtain Cr(VI) ion adsorption details for the equilibrium between Cr(VI) and modified pistachio shell (MPS). The influences of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and initial chromium concentration on the adsorption performance of MPS was investigated in detail. The results displayed that adsorption of Cr(VI) by MPS reached to equilibrium after 2 h and after that a little change of Cr(VI) removal efficiency was observed. The sorption percent is higher at lower pH and lower chromium concentration. Two possible mechanisms for reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) can be suggested in Cr(VI) removal. In the first mechanism, Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) by surface electron-donor groups of the adsorbent and the reduced Cr(III) forms complexes with adsorbent or remains in the solution. This Cr(III) is not adsorbed by adsorbent at pH 1.8. But in second mechanism, the adsorption-coupled reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) occurred on the adsorbent sites. The equilibrium sorption capacity of Cr(VI) ion after 2 h was 64.35 mg/g for MPS.

Key Words
sorption; isotherm; Cr(VI); pistachio shell

Address
Ş. Parlayici-Karataş and E. Pehlivan: Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Campus, 42079 Konya, Turkey


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