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CONTENTS
Volume 1, Number 2, April 2016
 

Abstract
In this article, hybridization of enhanced colliding bodies optimization (ECBO) with upper bound strategy (UBS) that is called UECBO is proposed for optimum design of truss structures with frequency constraints. The distinct feature of the proposed algorithm is that it requires less computational time while preserving the good accuracy of the ECBO. Four truss structures with frequency limitations selected from the literature are studied to verify the viability of the algorithm. This type of problems is highly non-linear and non-convex. The numerical results show the successful performance of the UECBO algorithm in comparison to the CBO, ECBO and some other metaheuristic optimization methods.

Key Words
optimum design; enhanced colliding bodies optimization; upper bound strategy; truss structures; frequency constraints

Address
Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, P.O. Box 16846-13114, Iran

Abstract
The usage of sandwich structure is extensively increasing in lightweight protective structures due to its low density and other useful properties. Sandwich panels made of metal sheets with unfilled cellular cores are found to exhibit lower deflections by comparing to an equivalent monolithic plate of same metal and similar mass per unit density. However, the process of localized impact on solid structures involving plastic deformation, high strain rates, temperature effect, material erosion, etc. does not hold effectively as that of monolithic plate. In present work, the applications of the sandwich plate with corrugated core have been extended to develop optimized lightweight armour using foam as medium of its core by explicit finite element analysis (FEA). The mechanisms of hardened steel projectile penetration of aluminum corrugated sandwich panels filled with foams have been numerically investigated by finite element analysis (FEA). A comparative study is done for the triangular corrugated sandwich plate filled with polymeric foam and metallic foam with different densities in order to achieve the optimum penetration resistance to ballistic impact. Corrugated sandwich plates filled with metallic foams are found to be superior when compared to the polymeric one. The optimized results are then compared with that of equivalent solid and unfilled cores structure to observe the effectiveness of foam-filled corrugated sandwich plate which provides an effective resistance to ballistic response. The novel structure can be the alternative to solid aluminum plate in the applications of light weight protection system.

Key Words
corrugated plate; explicit; FEA; foam; impact; residual velocity; sandwich

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (Deemed University), Girinagar, Pune - 411025, India

Abstract
This paper presents a method of design for the energy harvesting of a piezoelectric cantilever beam. Vibration modes have strain nodes where the strain distribution changes in the direction of the beam length. Covering the strain nodes of the vibration modes with continuous electrodes effects a cancellation of the voltages outputs. The use of segmented electrodes avoids cancellations of the voltage for multi-mode vibration. The resistive load affects the voltage and generated power. The optimum resistive load is considered for segmented and continuous electrodes, and then the power output is verified. One of the effective parameters on energy harvesting performance is the existence of concentrated mass. This topic is studied in this paper. Resonance and off-resonance cases are considered for the harvester. In this paper, both theoretical and experimental methods are used for satisfactory results.

Key Words
energy harvesting; strain nodes; generated power; vibration modes

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

Abstract
Nature has provided inspiration for most of the man-made technologies. Scientists believe that dolphins are the second to humans in smartness and intelligence. Echolocation is the biological sonar used by dolphins for navigation and hunting in various environments. This ability of dolphins is mimicked in this paper to develop a new optimization method. Dolphin Echolocation Optimization (DEO) is an optimization method based on dolphin

Key Words
Dolphin Echolocation Optimization; continuous search space; mathematical examples; truss structure

Address
Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran
University of Science and Technology, Tehan-16, Iran

Abstract
Dams play a vital role in the development and sustainment in a country. Failure of dams leads to the catastrophic event with sudden release of water and is of great concern. Hence earthquake-resistant design of dams is of prime importance. The present study involves static, modal and transient analyses of dam-reservoir-foundation system using finite element software ANSYS 15. The dam and the foundation are modeled with 2D plane strain element "PLANE 42" and the reservoir by fluid acoustic element "FLUID 29" with proper consideration of fluid-structure interaction. An expression for the fundamental period of concrete dams is developed based on modal analysis. Seismic response of gravity dams subjected to earthquake acceleration is evaluated in terms of peak displacement and stress.

Key Words
gravity dam; earthquake; fundamental period; fluid structure interaction; reservoir

Address
Jiji Anna Varughese: Department of Civil Engineering, Government Engineering College Barton Hill, Thiruvananthapuram, 695035 Kerala, India

Sreelakshmi Nikithan: Department of Civil Engineering, Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Kerala, India

Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of stiffened element and edge stiffener in the behaviour and flexural strength of built-up cold-formed steel beams. An experimental and analytical analysis of CFS channel sections in four different geometries is conducted, including simple channel sections, a stiffened channel section with or without edge stiffeners. Nonlinear finite element models are developed using finite element analysis software package ANSYS. The FEA results are verified with the experimental results. Further, the finite element model is used for parametric studies by varying the depth, thickness, and the effect of stiffened element, edge stiffener and their interaction with compression flanges on stiffened built-up cold-formed steel beams with upright edge stiffeners. In addition, the flexural strength predicted by the finite element analysis is compared with the design flexural strength calculated by using the North American Iron and Steel Institute Specifications for cold-formed steel structures (AISI: S100-2007) and suitable suggestion is made.

Key Words
built-up beams; cold formed steel; beams; edge stiffener; finite element analysis

Address
P. Manikandan: Department of Civil Engineering, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Namakkal - 637 215, Tamil Nadu, India

S.Sukumar: Department of Civil Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Salem-636 011, Tamil Nadu, India


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